Chapter 1 Study Guide

Chapter 1 Study Guide - Chapter1StudyGuide 22:04...

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Chapter 1 Study Guide 22:04 What is Politics? How people try to manage conflicting interests/values/ideas about whose  values will be served and how best to allocate limited resources The process through which individuals and groups reach agreement on a  course of common, or collective, action- even as they disagree on the  intended goals of that action Politics matters because each party needs to find a solution to its conflict or  disagreement; solutions require parties to cooperate, even when it is costly  and difficult to achieve Why are bargaining and compromise important to politics? Success of politics requires these Bargaining: prolonged exchange of proposals and counterproposals between  2 parties to reach a collective decision Generally ends in compromise, or settlement in which each side concedes  some preferences to secure others What are preferences? Individual’s choices, reflecting economic situations/religious  values/ethnicity/or other valued interests Reconciling preferences represents a fundamental problem of governance What are institutions? In a democracy, an organization that manages potential conflicts, helps to find  solutions, and makes/enforces society’s collective agreements Ex: congress/presidency/supreme court A stable community, whether a club or a nation-state, endures by establishing  rules and procedures for promoting successful collective action What is a constitution? Success of a nation depends largely on whether they have developed  constitutions and governments that work A set of rules and procedures these institutions must (and must not) follow to  reach and enforce collective agreements What is a government? Why are they important? Consists of institutions and the legally prescribed process for making and  enforcing collective agreements
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Various forms: monarchy, representative democracy, theocracy (religious  leaders), or a dictatorship What is authority? How is it different from power? Acknowledged right to make a particular decision o President has ‘authority to nominate federal judges, however senate  retains authority to actually ‘confirm’ them Power refers to an officeholder’s actual influence with other officeholders, and  as a consequences, over the government’s actions One’s authority is an important ingredient in its occupant’s power, but a power  includes to skill to deploy that authority when dealing with other officeholders  and politicians What is institutional reform and how does it generally occur? Institutions tend to be stable b/c:
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Chapter 1 Study Guide - Chapter1StudyGuide 22:04...

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