BCH 100, Spring 2011
Lecture 25, Translation (Dr. Ziegler)
Chapters 38 and 39
initiation codon, stop codon, reading frame, wobble,
amino acid activation, aminoacyl-tRNA, charging, Shine-Dalgarno
sequence, prokaryotic initiation factors (especially IF2), prokaryotic
elongation factors (especially EF-Tu and EF-G), A site, P site, E site,
peptidyl transferase, prokaryotic release factors RF1, RF2, and RF3,
polysome, eukaryotic miRNA and siRNA
Explain what is meant by describing the genetic code as a triplet code
non-overlapping, comma-less, degenerate, and universal
Given the genetic code, be able to translate a short mRNA sequence.
Discuss the directionality and specificity of base-pairing between the
codon and the anticodon, including the wobble position.
Why do amino acids need to be activated in order to form peptide
Explain the 2-step aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase reaction,
including where and by what kind of linkage the activated amino acid
is attached to the tRNA, and the energy cost of the reaction. Compare
this 2-step activation reaction with activation of fatty acids, Lecture 14.
How is the amino acid (Met) activated and chemically modified for
initiation in prokaryotes?
Describe the size of the subunits of a prokaryotic ribosome, and what
kinds of molecules make up those subunits.