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Lecture-2-Chemistry-_37185

Lecture-2-Chemistry-_37185 - Liketheabiotic world,...

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The Chemical Nature of Life ke e iotic orld living organisms are a collection of • Like the abiotic world, living organisms are a collection of atoms (representing different elements ) that are linked by emical bonds form olecules chemical bonds to form molecules . • Unique to life, are the myriad of molecules primarily mprised of one or more of these four elements: rbon comprised of one or more of these four elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & nitrogen mprise 96% of ody weight atomic umber lement % of Human ody wt comprise 96% of body weight 4%: Ca, K, S, Na, P, Mg, Cl Trace elements (0.01%): I, Fe, number element body wt. Co, Zn, B, Mn, Se, ergent properties Emergent properties : atoms molecules, example: 2H + O H O ; properties of 2 2 elements O , H vs. that of water.
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ATOMS Atomic Structure 01 HAVE SUBATOMIC PARTICLES 101 a. d. g. etermine mbine to get cated in determine located in: combine to get located in b. atomic number e. h. shells constant for each may differ in various outer shell called c. f. isotopes i.
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Atomic Structure he element helium atomic number The element helium Isotopes of an atom: different number of electrons: (–) charge; # electrons = # protons neutrons (proton & electron quantity nucleus of: rotons: (+) charge & identical) –a l l exhibit same chemical roperties protons: () charge & neutrons (uncharged) properties Radioisotopes : unstable atomic mass nuclei, decay giving off energy/matter. Elements are neutral : –c a n be detected; use as tracers to follow molecules in biological reactions. # electrons = # protons Atomic number = # of protons Also, many applications in medicine. Atomic mass = # of protons + # of neutrons
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Electrons Have Potential Energy otential energy: energy due to the arrangement or position • Potential energy: energy due to the arrangement or position of matter –A n electron’s potential energy is proportional to its’ distance from the p gy pp nucleus; determined by which energy level or shell the electrons occupy ergy absorbed y an atom Energy absorbed by an atom can result in electrons oving to higher levels moving to higher levels (shells), or even out of the atom altogether. ectron transfers between EX: Photosynthesis Electron transfers between molecules = transfers of nergy; ese rocesses energy; these processes fuel metabolism.
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Distribution of Electrons in an Atom lectrons e constant motion around the nucleus; occupy Electrons are in constant motion around the nucleus; occupy regions called orbitals , and these occur in discrete layers around the nucleus, termed shells . – Orbitals can hold a maximum of 2 e –T h e quantity of energy levels, or shells, is determined by the quantity of electrons: 1st shell: 1 orbital only (2 e ’s max) 1s nd shell: rbitals e ’ max) 2s 2px 2py 2pz 2nd shell: 4 orbitals (8 e s max) 2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz 3rd shell: 4 orbitals (8 e
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Lecture-2-Chemistry-_37185 - Liketheabiotic world,...

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