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Unformatted text preview: • N • • 7p7n •valence = 3 • Octet rule: tendency of reactive atoms to stabilize by filling their outer shell with 8e‐. How? By gaining or losing electrons, or by sharing electrons, atoms can form chemical bonds; bond formation between reactive atoms yields stable molecules . Types: covalent, ionic, & hydrogen bonds Covalent Bond Formation • The octet rule can also be fulfilled when reactive atoms combine to share valence electrons; such interactions lead to the formation of covalent bonds. – atoms share electrons in joint orbitals • Carbon (4 valence e‐) can form up to four covalent bonds with hydrogen (1 valence e‐), forming methane (CH4): shared orbitals Different ways to represent the methane molecule: The “ball & stick” model shows that the covalent bonds are at fixed angles from each other, forming a pyramid‐ like shape (tetrahedron). CH4 Characteristics of Covalent Bonds • Though covalent bonds represent a sharing of valence electrons between atoms, this “sharing” may not be equal. • The difference in electronegativity between two atoms determines the extent of electron sharing. – Electronegativity: measure of an atoms’ attraction for electrons; higher electronegativity = stronger attract...
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