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• 7p7n •valence = 3 • Octet rule: tendency of reactive atoms to stabilize by filling their outer shell with 8e‐. How?
By gaining or losing electrons, or by sharing electrons, atoms can form chemical bonds; bond formation between reactive atoms yields stable molecules . Types: covalent, ionic, & hydrogen bonds Covalent Bond Formation
• The octet rule can also be fulfilled when reactive atoms combine to share valence electrons; such interactions lead to the formation of covalent bonds.
– atoms share electrons in joint orbitals • Carbon (4 valence e‐) can form up to four covalent bonds with hydrogen (1 valence e‐), forming methane (CH4): shared orbitals Different ways to represent the methane molecule: The “ball & stick” model shows that the covalent bonds are at fixed angles from each other, forming a pyramid‐
like shape (tetrahedron). CH4 Characteristics of Covalent Bonds
• Though covalent bonds represent a sharing of valence electrons between atoms, this “sharing” may not be equal.
• The difference in electronegativity between two atoms determines the extent of electron sharing.
– Electronegativity: measure of an atoms’ attraction for electrons; higher electronegativity = stronger attract...
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- Spring '08