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Unit-3-Questions-to-_38925 - 1 UNIT 3/EXAM 3 Questions to...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 UNIT 3/EXAM 3: Questions to Think About CH 11 (Cell Communication) 1. What is cellular communication and why is it important for an organism? What is “signal transduction” and what is the basic mechanism of cellular communication? 2. Describe the types of local and long distance communication between cells. Which type(s) of signaling involve hormones? involves the nervous system? 3. Describe the three stages of the signal transduction response. 4. What is the role receptors have in responding to a molecular signal? What can happen as a result? How do intracellular receptors differ from plasma membrane receptors in terms of their interaction with molecular signals? 5. How do G protein‐coupled receptors differ from receptor tyrosine kinases? Briefly describe and how they both function. What is a kinase? What are ligand‐gated ion channels? How do they operate? 6. How do intracellular receptors function? 7. What is a phosphorylation cascade and in what stage of signal transduction does this occur? What are second messengers? How does cyclic AMP function in the signal transduction response? Does it work in conjunction with plasma membrane receptors (how so)? How is cAMP formed? 8. How does Ca2+ function as a secondary messenger? How can inositol triphosphate (IP3) activate calcium release? 9. What are the two types of cellular responses to a signal? How do they differ? Briefly describe each response. CH 40 (Homeostasis) 10. How does form and function of an animal relate to natural selection? 11. How does exchange with the environment limit an animal’s body plan? How does this differ between simple, unicellular organisms and larger, more complex multicellular organisms like us? 12. What is the hierarchy of organization in a body? How do emergent properties fit into this? 13. What are the four tissue types and what are their basic functions? What is the role of the endocrine system and nervous system in coordinating & controlling body functions? 14. What is homeostasis? How do regulators & conformers differ in terms of maintaining their internal environment? 15. Explain the mechanism of negative feedback? How does this relate to homeostasis? What are the components of a negative feedback system that help to maintain homeostasis? What is positive feedback? 16. What is thermoregulation? Why is this important? What is meant by endothermic & ectothermic? What are the terms poikilotherm and homeotherm? How does the latter terms relate to endothermy & ectothermy? 2 How do ectotherms & endotherms respond to changes in external temperature in terms of their body temperature & metabolic rate, respectively? 17. What are the mechanisms of heat exchange that occur between an organism and the external environment? What are the main sources of heat input in an organism? 18. Describe the adaptations animals have to reduce overall heat exchange or favor heat exchange in a particular direction. What role does the integumentary system have in these mechanisms? What is thermogenesis? What is the function of brown fat? 19. What is acclimatization? How does this work? 20. What is the physiological mechanism of body temperature control in mammals? How does negative feedback help to maintain body temperature? What is the hypothalamus & what role does it have in this mechanism? What are the body’s responses to low and high temperature, respectively? What is fever? 21. What is meant by basal metabolic rate & standard metabolic rate? What is the relationship between metabolic rate and size of an animal? How does this differ from the metabolic rate per quantity of tissue vs. size? 22. What are modes of energy conservation some animals possess? Why would they need to employ these mechanisms? CH 46 (Hormones) 23. What are hormones? What produces hormones? What do hormones have in common with the nervous system? 24. What is the basic mechanism of action of hormones? How do hormones differ from local regulators? What are the two types of local regulators? What are the types of neuronal signaling? What are pheromones? 25. What are the 3 chemical classes of hormones? What is the difference between the interaction of water‐ soluble hormones vs. fat‐soluble hormones to their target cells? How do water soluble hormones exert their effect? How do fat soluble hormones affect their target cells? 26. How are hormonal responses regulated? Diagram a basic endocrine pathway. How do antagonistic hormone pairs regulate activity? 27. What are the mechanisms of action of insulin & glucagon in terms of controlling blood glucose? Where are these hormones produced & secreted? For both insulin & glucagon, what are the two types of target cell responses for each hormone? What is diabetes and what are the two forms of this disease? What characterizes each type? What complication(s) arise from having elevated blood glucose levels? 28. What is the function of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland and how do they relate to each other? What are the 2 divisions of the pituitary gland, and how are they different in terms of their function? What are neurohormones? Which neurohormones are released from the posterior pituitary? What is their function? What are tropic hormones and where are they secreted from? 29. What is a hormone cascade pathway? Draw a basic diagram of this. What are the roles of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary in this process? How does the hypothalamus control the anterior pituitary? How does negative feedback enter into the process? What does negative feedback provide? 3 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. What occurs during the “fight or flight” or stress response? What are the 2 primary hormones released upon direct nervous stimulation? Where are they produced & secreted from? What are the effects of these hormones? What other hormones are secreted at the same time? What is their general function? What are the gonadal sex hormones and what is their function? CH 48 (Neurons) What is the difference between the peripheral & central nervous system? What are the roles of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons? Which of the latter are part of the peripheral & central nervous system? What are the types of nerve cells and how do each differ in function? What are the components of a neuron and their function? What are pre‐ and post‐synaptic neurons? What is a synapse? What is a membrane potential? a resting potential? How is the latter formed? What are the principal ions responsible for generating nerve impulses in neurons? What are the different ion channels/pumps involved in generating electrical impulses? What is the function of the sodium/potassium pump and what is the effect of this transporter? Diagram the action potential and the phases involved. How is the resting potential maintained? What is depolarization? What is hyperpolarization & repolarization? What are the flow of Na+ & K+ ions in these latter processes and what ion channels are operable in these phases? What is the all‐or‐nothing response of a neuron? What is the threshold potential? How do electrical impulses travel down the axon? What are graded potentials? What is the refractory period and what is its significance? What factors affect the speed at which action potentials are conducted? What is saltutory conduction and how does the myelin sheath contribute to this? What are the nodes of Ranvier? What are chemical synapses, how do they function, and how do chemically‐gated ion channels contribute to the generation of action potentials in post‐synaptic cells? What are electrical synapses? 38. What are excitatory & inhibitory post synaptic potentials? What determines whether an action potential is fired or not? What is an inhibitory synapse and how is this generated? CH 49 Nervous Systems 39. Draw a diagram showing the organization of the vertebrate nervous system; indicate CNS, PNS (and divisions of the PNS), afferent/efferent nerves & other important parts. How are efferent & afferent nerves different in terms of their roles? What controls voluntary movements? Involuntary movements? 40. What is the arrangement of nerves in the spinal cord? How are the PNS & CNS connected? What does white matter & gray matter refer to? What is a reflex action? Draw a basic diagram of the parts involved in the knee‐jerk response (make sure you know which are sensory/motor neurons here). What would be the brain’s role in this response? 41. What is the brain stem, what are its components, & what kind of information passes through here, & what are its functions? What is the reticular formation? What is the function of the cerebellum? 42. What does the diencephalon refer to? What are its components & their function? 4 43. What are the areas of the cerebrum? What are their functions? What is the corpus callosum? What is meant by associative functions? What is the purpose of the primary motor cortex & primary somatosensory cortex, respectively? What areas of the cerebrum are responsible for language and speech? 44. What does the limbic system do? What are the main structures here, and what are they responsible for? 45. What is meant by neural plasticity and how does this function? 46. In basic terms, what are the underlying causes of many neurological disorders? ...
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