C5F2009 - © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of...

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Unformatted text preview: © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of Chemistry, University of Houston 5.1 An Overview of the Physical States of Matter 5.2 Gas Pressure and Its Measurement 5.3 The Gas Laws and Their Experimental Foundations 5.4 Further Applications of the Ideal Gas Law 5.5 The Ideal Gas Law and Reaction Stoichiometry 5.6 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory: A Model for Gas Behavior 5.7 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior Chapter 5. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of Chemistry, University of Houston 2 An Overview of the Physical States of Matter Gases are highly compressible . Gases are thermally expandable . Change in volume with temperature is much greater for gases than for liquids or solids. Gases have low viscosity . (low resistance to flow) Low viscosity means gases flow easily through pipes but also leak readily out of small holes. Gases differ greatly in their properties from liquids and solids. © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of Chemistry, University of Houston 3 Gas density units are grams per liter ; liquid and solid densities are in grams per milliliter . Density of O 2 (g) is 1.4 g/L; H 2 O(l) is 1.0 g/mL Gases are miscible ; mix with other gases in any proportion forming homogeneous mixtures. © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of Chemistry, University of Houston 4 Pressure = Force Area Measuring the Pressure of a Gas A gas exerts pressure on the walls of its container Pressure (P) is the force exerted per unit of surface area: Atmospheric gases exert a force on all objects. The weight of these gases creates a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi) of surface The meaning of pressure and the operation of barometers and manometers CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 5 Craig Ferguson and Bill Nye “The Science Guy” © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of Chemistry, University of Houston 6 Devices for Measuring Gas Pressure At sea level and 0°C, normal atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg or 760 torr. Barometers are used to measure atmospheric pressure. © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of Chemistry, University of Houston 7 Manometers are laboratory devices used to measure gas pressure. A closed-end manometer is a mercury-filled, U-shaped tube, closed at one end . P gas = ! h (mmHg) © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of Chemistry, University of Houston 8 An open-end manometer compares pressure of the gas to the pressure of the atmosphere © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of Chemistry, University of Houston 9 Units of Pressure SI pressure unit is the pascal (Pa), a force of one newton over an area of one square meter: Learn: 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 Torr = 101 kPa © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of Chemistry, University of Houston 10 Convert from atm to kPa: Problem: A geochemist heats a sample and collects CO 2 released in a closed-end manometer . At 25°C, ! h = 291.4 mmHg. Calculate CO 2 pressure in torr, atm., pressure in torr, atm....
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This note was uploaded on 08/16/2011 for the course BIOL 1361-1362 taught by Professor Any during the Spring '08 term at University of Houston.

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C5F2009 - © CHEM 1331 Prof. Geanangel, Chapter 5 Dept. of...

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