BIOL-1362-CH-52-55-Q_41642 (2)

BIOL-1362-CH-52-55-Q_41642 (2) - 1 CH 52‐55 (Sadava text...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 CH 52‐55 (Sadava text CH 52, 54‐56): Questions to Think About CH 52: Ecology & the Biosphere 1. What is ecology? What is meant by the abiotic and biotic portions of an organism’s environment? What are the ecological levels and how are they defined? How are ecology & evolution related? 2. What is biogeography and how do the following factors limit the distribution of species? What are endemic species? How do these arise? a. Dispersal (What is this? How do range expansion & species transplantation affect dispersal?) b. Behavior c. Biotic factors d. Abiotic factors 3. What is climate? How does solar radiation contribute to (1) air circulation patterns , (2) the formation of precipitation, and (3) oceanic currents? What influences the variation in solar radiation received in different locations on Earth? What kinds of ecosystems are found here? a. Why do coastal areas have more moderate climates compared to inland regions? b. What is a rain shadow? Geographically, where do these occur? How does climate and vegetation type vary as a result of this phenomenon? 4. What are biomes? How are terrestrial & aquatic biomes defined? 5. What information does a climograph provide? How are the different aquatic biomes layered? What defines each layer? 6. In temperate lakes, what is meant by “seasonal turnover”? What exactly happens and why is this important? CH 53: Population Ecology 7. What is a population and what are the general features of a population? What are the different patterns of dispersion in a population? Why do these patterns occur? 8. What demographic factors are used to characterize the growth and size of a population? What are cohorts and survivorship? Do the latter reflect the growth of the population, or not? Describe the three types of survivorship curves and draw what these curves would look like. What animal types correspond to each? 9. What does a life history of a species represent? How do semelparity & iteroparity differ? What factors lead to either type of reproductive strategy? 10. What is exponential growth? What is the difference between exponential (i.e., geometric) and arithmetic (linear) growth of a population? Which one represents a growth limiting pattern? 2 11. Draw an exponential growth curve and a logistic growth curve. How is exponential growth different from logistic growth? What are the equations for each? What do the variables represent in each equation? What causes exponential growth of a population to become logistic? What is the carrying capacity? Label carrying capacity on the appropriate graph. 12. What is density‐dependent & density‐independent growth? What are examples of density‐dependent factors & density‐independent factors? 13. What can cause population numbers to fluctuate in a cyclical pattern over the long‐term? Describe a couple of examples illustrating this phenomenon. 14. What is an age structure diagram? What information does this provide? 15. How are density‐dependent factors used in strategies for the management of populations? How is this used differently for managing populations that are used as a food source v. a population that is not desirable? CH 54: Community Ecology 16. What is a community? What is meant by “interspecific community interactions”? 17. What is interspecific competition? What impact does this have on the two species? What outcomes can result from such interactions in terms of affecting the community structure? What is an ecological niche? 18. Briefly describe the following interactions & indicate the impact on both species using “+”, “‐“, or “0”: predation, herbivory, parasitism, mutualism, & commensalism. What is symbiosis & which interactions are symbiotic? 19. What is species richness? How does species richness differ from relative abundance? 20. What is meant by trophic structure and food chain? a. List and describe the trophic levels of an ecosystem. b. What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph? How do the latter two fit in the trophic structure? Where do producers, carnivores, herbivores, & decomposers fit in this trophic structure? Which of the latter are consumers? (what level of consumers?) c. How does a food web differ from a food chain? d. What is transferred from one level to the next? 21. What limits the length of a food chain? 22. Describe the following species which can have a significant impact on a community: dominant species; foundation species; keystone species. 3 23. Describe the bottom‐up model of community organization. How can one impact community structure in this model? Can the change be a positive or a negative one or a combination of both? Explain. 24. Describe the top‐down model of community organization. How can one impact community structure in this model? Can the change be a positive or a negative one or a combination of both? Explain. What is another name for this model? 25. What is an ecological disturbance? What level of disturbance supports greater species richness? Why? What distinguishes primary from secondary ecological succession? CH 55: Ecosystems 26. What is an ecosystem? What is the energy source of an ecosystem & how does energy flow through an ecosystem (draw a diagram to depict this). What else flows through the ecosystem? What kind of energy is lost in an ecosystem? Why? What do decomposers provide? 27. What is primary production a measure of? What is the difference between gross primary production (GPP) & net primary production (NPP)? How is NPP expressed I terms of values? What limits primary production in aquatic & terrestrial ecosystems, respectively? What is eutrophication? Generally, in what areas is NPP the greatest on Earth? Why? 28. What happens to the chemical energy in a food source eaten by a consumer? What is secondary production? What energy is available to those on the next higher trophic level? What does it mean to have a high production efficiency? 29. What is trophic efficiency? Will this value be the same as production efficiency? Why or why not? What is the average trophic efficiency in an ecosystem? Why is energy flow in an ecosystem depicted as a pyramid? Why do some aquatic ecosystems have a biomass pyramid that is inverted (upside down)? 30. What is a biogeochemical cycle? Why are these important for life? Which elements have gaseous forms & which do not? How does influence the distribution of elements? 31. List & briefly describe the features of the major biogeochemical cycles a. What are the main processes driving the water cycle? b. How do autotrophs & heterotrophs differ with respect to their roles in the carbon cycle? What are abiotic sources of CO2 in the atmosphere? c. Bacterial activity plays a large role in what biogeochemical cycle? Which life forms rely greatly on this activity? what is nitrogen fixation? d. What is the important biological form of phosphorous? 32. How does the rate of decomposition influence an ecosystem? What affects the rate? 4 33. What human activities impact the biogeochemical cycles? What is biological magnification? Increased photosynthetic activity results from increased CO2 levels ‐ to a point – thereafter additional CO2 is not assimilated why? ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/16/2011 for the course BIOL 1361-1362 taught by Professor Any during the Spring '08 term at University of Houston.

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