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BIOL-1362-CH-22-26-Q_36728 - 1 CH 22‐26(Sadava text CH...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 CH 22‐26 (Sadava text CH 21‐23, 25): Questions to Think About CH 22: Darwin & Modification 1. Before Darwin, what was the prevailing view that explained the diversity of life on Earth? The emergence of studies in which scientific fields initiated a change in the view of Earth’s natural history? 2. What do fossils reveal about the history of life on Earth? 3. What were Lamarck’s contributions in explaining earth’s natural history? What was his theory of (a) use & disuse and (b) inheritance of acquired characteristics? What was incorrect (or correct) about this theory? 4. From his time spent exploring various areas during his voyage on the Beagle, what were Darwin’s general ideas regarding observations he made in these explorations? What was significant about observations made during his time spent on the Galapagos Islands? 5. Describe the influences on Darwin in formulating his theory of evolution. 6. What is meant by “descent with modification”? How “evolutionary trees” help to describe Darwin’s “descent with modification”? 7. Describe Darwin’s observations & inferences about evolution by natural selection. What is natural selection and how does this act on an organism? What are adaptations and how do these arise? How does evolution by natural selection relate to what we know about DNA and the central dogma of biology (i.e., DNA RNA Protein), and sexual reproduction? 8. List and briefly describe the various forms of evidence for evolution. What are homologous features and what is the significance of these? What are vestigial structures and what do these indicate? What is convergent evolution? CH 23: Evolution of Populations 9. What is microevolution? Compare and contrast microevolution with macroevolution. 10. In terms of phenotypic variation in populations, what is the difference between quantitative & qualitative variation? What is geographic variation? What causes genetic variation? What is average heterozygosity? What does this tell you? 11. What is meant by the genetic structure of a population? Describe: gene pool, fixed allele, allele frequency, genotype frequency. 2 12. What is the Hardy‐Weinberg Principle, what purpose does it serve, and how is it used? What are the five conditions that must be met in order for a population to be in genetic equilibrium? 13. What is the Hardy‐Weinberg equation and what do the terms in the equation stand for? 14. What are the three major microevolutionary processes that can change allele frequencies in a population? Briefly describe each process. What is a genetic bottleneck? What is the founder effect? 15. What is the relationship between natural selection and mutation? How is a mutation defined as good, bad, or neither? What is meant by relative fitness? 16. Describe stabilizing selection, directional selection, and disruptive selection. What is sexual selection? What is the difference between intrasexual & intersexual selection? 17. Through what mechanisms is genotypic variation preserved in a population? What is balancing selection? 18. Can a population of organisms evolve any type of trait? Why or why not? Does evolution form “perfect” organisms? Why or why not? CH24: Origin of Species and CH 25: History of Life on Earth 19. What is a biological species? What is the basic process of speciation in sexually reproducing populations? What is meant by reproductive isolation? 20. List and describe the pre‐zygotic and post‐zygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms. 21. What are limitations of the biological species definition? Describe the other types of species definitions. 22. Describe the processes of allopatric & sympatric speciation, respectively. By what mechanisms can sympatric speciation occur? What is allopolyploidy? 23. What are hybrid zones? How do these form? What are the three possible outcomes of a hybrid zone? 24. In terms of macroevolution, describe how the three major influences that contributed to changing life on Earth: continental drift; mass extinctions; adaptive radiation. 25. What is evolutionary developmental biology? How do changes in developmental genes impact an organism? What is allometric growth and paedomorphosis? What can changes in the spatial pattern of development lead to? How have changes in developmental genes contributed to the evolution of life on Earth? CH 26: Phylogeny 3 26. What is phylogeny? What kind of data is used to construct a phylogeny? How does taxonomy relate to this? What is the system of binomial nomenclature? Who developed this system? What is the hierarchal system that classifies life on earth (i.e., what are the groupings)? What is the classification of the kingdoms of life ‐ how are they differentiated from each other? 27. Draw a simple phylogenetic tree. What does such a “tree” represent? What do the branch points signify? Is there a time component to such a tree (how so)? 28. What is cladistics? What is a clade? What are monophyletic, paraphyletic & polyphyletic groupings? 29. How do homologous features differ from homoplastic features? What does each mean in terms of relatedness between species? How are these used to determine relatedness between species? How does convergent evolution figure into this? 30. Compare & contrast shared derived characters with ancestral characters. Which represents a larger taxonomic grouping? the smaller taxonomic grouping? 31. How can one construct a simple phylogenetic tree? What is an outgroup? What can one infer about bird phylogeny from the phylogeny of dinosaurs? 32. What are molecular homologies? What advantage does this have over comparison of morphological characters in determining phylogenies? How can phylogenetic trees differ when constructed using molecular homologies? ...
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