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BIO311C_Spr11_chapter 12_13

BIO311C_Spr11_chapter 12_13 - Cell cycle and regulation...

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Cell cycle and regulation 228-236, 238-243 (relevant parts)
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Some vocab.. Chromosome Karyotype Homologous chromosomes Sister chromatid Allele Somatic cells Gametes Sex chromosomes Autosomes Haploid Diploid
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Karyotype Arrangement of chromosomes in pairs starting with the longest chromosome
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Fig. 13-3b Pair of homologous replicated chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids Metaphase chromosome 5 µm
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sex chromosomes are called X and Y Human females have a homologous pair of X  chromosomes (XX) Human males have one X and one Y chromosome The 22 pairs of chromosomes that do not determine  sex are called  autosomes
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Each pair of homologous chromosomes includes one chromosome  from each parent The 46 chromosomes in a human somatic cell are two sets of 23:  one from the mother and one from the father diploid cell (2n) has two sets of chromosomes For humans, the diploid number is 46 (2n = 46)
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Fig. 13-4 Key Maternal set of chromosomes ( n = 3) Paternal set of chromosomes ( n = 3) 2 n = 6 Centromere Two sister chromatids of one replicated chromosome Two nonsister chromatids in a homologous pair Pair of homologous chromosomes (one from each set)
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A gamete (sperm or egg) contains a single set of chromosomes, and is  haploid  (n) For humans, the haploid number is 23 (n = 23) Each set of 23 consists of 22 autosomes and a single sex chromosome In an unfertilized egg (ovum), the sex chromosome is X In a sperm cell, the sex chromosome may be either X or Y
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Fig. 14-4 Allele for purple flowers Homologous pair of chromosomes Locus for flower-color gene Allele for white flowers Allele: alternate forms of genes located on homologous chromosomes
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Somatic Cells: Somatic Cells: Germ Cells: Germ Cells:   pockets of specialized cells   produce gametes (egg/sperm)    incorporated into ovaries and testis   undergo  meiosis meiosis produce   haploid haploid  gametes (N)
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Phases of the Cell Cycle The cell cycle consists of Interphase Mitotic phase INTERPHASE G 1 S (DNA synthesis) G 2 Cytokinesis Mitosis MITOTIC (M) PHASE Figure 12.5
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S phase
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Each duplicated chromosome Has two sister chromatids, which separate during cell  division 0.5 µm Chromosome duplication (including DNA synthesis) Centromere Separation of sister chromatids Sister chromatids Centromeres Sister chromatids A eukaryotic cell has multiple chromosomes, one of which is represented here. Before duplication, each chromosome has a single DNA molecule. Once duplicated, a chromosome consists of two sister chromatids connected at the centromere. Each chromatid contains a copy of the DNA molecule.
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