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Chapter 7 Learning - Ch 7 Learning Lecture Notes A...

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Ch. 7 – Learning – Lecture Notes A. Importance of learning in Evolution and in Daily functioning - People today spend a lot of time learning. 12 years to high school, 4 years college, 8-10 years as PhD - Education is increasingly important - Foundation of Psychology B. Definition of Learning - Performance = Learning + Motivation +Biological constraints + Special abilities + … How to isolate learning, motivation - Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from experience/practice (except in extreme cases) - Performance could be bad (assuming it was good previously) b/c of lack of motivation, sickness, but NOT unlearned - We need to put effort in learning - No change in behavior=hasn’t learned C. Learning Foundations in Psychology 500 BC Philosophers - Thought about how things are associated in the mind. - They knew: Different people had different mental associations - They ask: What is the law of learning? Answer: Congruity Darwin/Evolutionary perspective - Structures/morphology of learning increased fitness/survivability - The plasticity of behavior helps to adapt to the environment
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- Across time, big shifts cause mass extinction, those with the ability survived - Humans modify their behavior b/c they learned. Functionalism - Emphasized learning as a function of the mind - How the organism learns, part of US frontier culture, capitalism learning was pushed to the top by Thorndike, educational psychologist - Compared to socialists, the US emphasized learning a lot. D. Instrumental Learning - Definition – is the use of a behavior's consequence to influence the occurrence and form of behavior, also known as Thorndikian learning and operant conditioning. - Analogy – response is contingent, do well keep job - Emphasizes trial and error learning - Animal’s/Person’s behavior is instrumental in determining outcome Stimulus, Response, Reward (Mnemonics: Spaceships Rip Randomly) - Reward good behavior/response - Punish bad behavior/response Behavioral Hierarchy - An animal has a behavioral hierarchy, a series of behaviors, there are in- built behaviors (born with it) and prepotent behavior (advantageous) -
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