SECOND EXAM NOTES - PSY301SECONDEXAMNOTES 2/17/11...

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PSY 301 SECOND EXAM NOTES 2/17/11 FIRST EXAM REVIEW - If you look at something with your right eyes, the information goes to both sides of the brain, since what is seen on  the left field of vision goes to the right brain and on the right field of vision goes to the left brain. - If one wishes to see whether the brain is active during memory retrieval, they might use a PET scan or an fMRI. - In paradoxical sleep, one will probably have very relaxed muscles. - Rats housed in stimulating environments have increased numbers of synapses. - Alcohol in small amounts and large amounts is a depressant. CH. 7 – LEARNING IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING IN EVOLUTION AND IN DAILY FUNCTIONING - Many people average 16 years of school o Education is important o World is increasingly complex - Performance = learning + motivation + … o … = biological ability, performance skills, etc. (many thing) - We isolate the learning component - Learning: “a relatively (1) permanent (2) change in behavior resulting from (3) experience (practice).” o If not PERMANENT, problem in motivation, sickness, etc. o If no CHANGE, they haven’t learned!
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HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LEARNING AS AN AREA OF PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY - Learning became a foundation of Psych, from 5 th  Century BC o Interest in how things are associated in mind – Socrates - Components of learning o Structure contributes to survivability – MORPHOLOGY o PLASTICITY of behavior (how one can change their behavior) Most intelligent organisms are ones able to learn o FUNCTIONALISM – learn how an organism functions by observing how it learns - Early/mid-1900s, Psych and Education went hand-in-hand o Not so much anymore - American Culture = FRONTIER culture o Capitalism, etc. o Emphasizes learning more than socialist countries INSTRUMENTAL LEARNING - One of the two major kinds of learning (often called Thorndikian learning) - Definition: one person’s behavior is instrumental in determining the outcome (result) o E.g. a rat will run through a maze to get good, therefore his behavior is instrumental to getting the food - OUTCOME is CONTINGENT upon RESPONSE. - Model: Stimulus-Response/Reinforcement (S-R/Rf) o Also called “trial and error” learning (E. L. Thorndike) - Response hierarchy: o S > R 1 o   > R 2
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o   > R 3 o Etc., until success After success, Rf (reinforcement) - Thorndike gave animals problems to solve FILM: THORNDIKE’S PUZZLE BOX - Placed cats in puzzle boxes - If their actions had a reward, they would learn effectively INSTRUMENTAL LEARNING (CONT’D) - Thorndike did this basic research for 10 years o After, he moved to education - He got in trouble for his theories (support) on evolution
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This note was uploaded on 08/18/2011 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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SECOND EXAM NOTES - PSY301SECONDEXAMNOTES 2/17/11...

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