Chapter 1 Review - Reading Outline Chapter 1 Methods of...

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Unformatted text preview: Reading Outline Chapter 1 Methods of Research The limits of common sense g131 hindsight bias g131 overconfidence g131 confirmation bias the scientific attitude g130 curious skepticism g130 open-mindedness g130 humility Critical thinking- Critical thinkers: 1. are open-minded 2. are able to identify biases 3. practice an attitude of skepticism 4. distinguish facts from opinions 5. dont oversimplify 6. use the processes of logical inference. 7. review all available evidence before reaching a conclusion Theories g131 Hypotheses g131 operational definitions g131 replication Description ( describing behavior ) g131 case study g131 surveys g131 naturalistic observation g130 limits of descriptive studies g130 specific problems with surveys g130 false consensus effect Correlational ( predicting behavior ) g131 scatter plots (sketch 1 pos. & 1 neg. ) g131 positive vs. negative correlations (sketch again w/ line added) g131 coefficients of correlation g131 causation Illusory correlations Experimentation ( explaining behavior cause & effect) g131 independent variable g131 dependent variable g131 random sampling (from population) why? g131 random assignment (to groups) -why? g131 double blind procedures-why? g131 placebos -why? g131 difference between procedural control & control group Statistical Reasoning g131 mode g131 mean g131 skewed distributions g131 median g131 range g131 standard deviation Sampling g131 reliability Generalizing from research studies - g131 3 important principles when using stats to generalize (know this well!) inferential statistics & test of statistical significance- Review Questions 1. Identify two pitfalls in thinking that make intuition and common sense untrustworthy. 2. Discuss the attitudes that characterize scientific inquiry, and explain the nature of critical thinking. 3. Explain the importance of theories, hypotheses, operational definitions, and replication in psychology. 4. What are descriptive research strategies? 5. Discuss the limitations and possible pitfalls of descriptive research. 6. Describe the types of correlation, and discuss why correlation enables prediction but not explanation. 7. Explain the nature and significance of illusory correlations. 8. If your level of test anxiety goes down as your time spent studying for the exam goes up, would you say these events are positively or negatively correlated? Explain why. 9. Describe the nature and advantages of experimentation. 10. Discuss the importance of random assignment and control techniques in research. 11. Explain at least one advantage of the experiment as a research strategy. 12. Define the three measures of central tendency, and explain how they describe data differently. 13. Describe two measures of variation....
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This note was uploaded on 08/18/2011 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 1 Review - Reading Outline Chapter 1 Methods of...

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