Ecological Energetics II full slide set

Ecological Energetics II full slide set - Henry John-Alder...

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Henry John Henry John - - Alder Alder Ecological Ecological Energetics Energetics II II Metabolic Rate Metabolic Rate Effects of body size ( Effects of body size ( Allometry Allometry ) Effects of thermoregulatory strategy ( Effects of thermoregulatory strategy ( Endothermy Endothermy vs. vs. Ectothermy Ectothermy )
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Idealized Energy Budget: (C = P + R + U + F) This equation includes terms only for the fates of ingested energy. Assimilation of energy (A) is an intermediary process, not a fate, and is thus not included. Consumed Food Production: Growth, Storage, Reproduction Respiration Urine Feces Assimilated Energy: Absorbed and taken into cells
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A Conceptual Energy Budget Fecal and urinary losses of energy are excluded from this diagram. To reconcile this conceptual budget with the idealized budget shown on the previous slide, remember that not all foraged food is digested, and not all digested food is absorbed. Some ingested energy is lost in fecal material without ever being digested or absorbed. Some absorbed energy is excreted in urine.
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Effects of Body Size Effects of Body Size ( ( Allometry Allometry ) )
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u Body Size Ju Energy Requirements Tahoe is 3X heavier than Smart. Allometric estimate of u energy requirement: ~ 2.28X (2.28 = 3 0.75 )
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u Body Size Ju Energy Requirements The relationship between body size and energy requirement is not linear. That is, increases in energy requirements are not proportional to increases in body size on a one-to-one basis. Allometric estimate: ~ 2.28X, where (2.28 = 3 0.75 ) Energy requirement is proportional to body size raised to the ¾ power.
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Allometry: Effects of Body Size Top Three Quotations
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“There can be no doubt that body size is a major factor in an animal’s life history; ask any zookeeper to compare the responsibilities of care, such as feeding and cage cleaning, for elephants and chinchillas.” W. A. Calder Number Three
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“… the most important attribute of an animal, both physiologically and ecologically, is its size. Size constrains virtually every aspect of structure and function …. Body mass … is the most widely useful predictor of physiological rates.” G. A. Bartholomew in Gordon’s Animal Physiology: Principles and Adaptations Number Two
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“You can drop a mouse down a thousand-yard mine shaft; and, on arriving at the bottom, it gets a slight shock and walks away, provided that the ground is fairly soft. A rat is killed, a man is broken, a horse splashes.” Haldane, J. B. S. (1928). On being the right size. In Possible Worlds, pp. 18-26. London: Chatto and Windus. Number One
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Length of any side = 1L Area of any face = A A = L 2 Volume = V V = L 3 A = V 2/3 = L 2 Length of any side = 3L Area of any face = A = 9L 2 Volume = V = 27L 3 A = V 2/3 = 9L 2 In general: A In general: A L 2 , V , V L 3 , , and and A A V 2/3 2/3 Allometry is nothing more than a detailed analysis of the effects of scale, or size.
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Ecological Energetics II full slide set - Henry John-Alder...

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