2010Exam-one - PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTION(11:704-486_CRIB NAME First Exam(22 February 2010(1 What and who are the following and how have they

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PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTION (11:704-486) __________CRIB _____________ NAME 1 First Exam (22 February 2010) (1) What and who are the following, and how have they contributed to the development of evolutionary thought? (20 points) Systema Naturae (Linnaeus) – Linnaeus (1735) published his taxonomy ( Systema Naturae ) of living organisms, built on a hierarchical pattern, with species nested within genera, genera within orders, and so on. He invented Latin binomial nomenclature, and invented modern systematics, as we know it today. The idea was that the hierarchical grouping was a reflection of the Creator’s will. Viewed variation within a species as pretty much trivial deviations from the central “theme” of the organism. The hierarchical view was clearly correct, and (barring a few mistakes), he got the basic classification right, if for the wrong reason. Darwin’s later ideas fit the scheme like a glove, with the proviso that evolution created the hierarchical pattern. Great Chains of Being (Lamark) – Lamark viewed living forms as arrayed on a sort of ladder, with the highest forms being the oldest and “most developed”. Organisms were said to move up the ladder, as whole species , with the changes being acquired in response to the environmental pressure. He had no clear sense of inheritance and accounted for fossils as species that were captured in time, along their ascent to a higher position in the current scheme of things. Vestiges of Lamarkian thinking survived into the 20 th Century. The major contribution to future thinking was the idea that a species could change over time, and could pass those changes on to future generations. It wasn’t genetically accurate, but it worked for Darwinian evolution. Natural Selection (Darwin & Wallace) Wallace was a talented biogeographer and explorer. He basically figured out natural selection (independently of Darwin, in the late 1850s. He sent Darwin his manuscript in 1858, for comment, and asked him to present the manuscript to the Royal Society. He used evolution to explain what he could identify as major biogeographic realms (provinces), large areas where the organisms were related in lineage form, not closely shared with other regions. He stirred Darwin to action, though Darwin gets most of the credit. Exponential Population Growth (Malthus) – The first person to formalize the mathematics and inevitable logic of exponential increase in population size: 1 2 4 8 16, etc., symbolized by N t = λ t N 0 , where λ is the intrinsic rate of increase . Malthus was concerned with the implications of rapid human population growth for the future well being of humanity, in view of the obvious overcrowding and competition for resources that would follow. The important point here is that literally any species, left to its own devices, would behave in the same fashion. The idea of uncontrolled growth was just what Darwin needed to put natural selection together as a concept. Given that different individuals had different λ -values, the “fittest” (highest λ -value) would prevail.
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This note was uploaded on 08/18/2011 for the course ECOLOGY 301 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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2010Exam-one - PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTION(11:704-486_CRIB NAME First Exam(22 February 2010(1 What and who are the following and how have they

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