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2011-Tree - Systematics Example Lets imagine five(5...

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Systematics Example Let’s imagine five (5) species (A = gull, B = hummingbird, C = macaque, D = bobcat, O = feathered dino outgroup) and six (6) binary features (characters), defined as follows: Character-1 : Bi/quadra-pedal (0 = quadripedal, 1 = bipedal) Character-2 : Feathers (0 = present, 1 = absent) Character-3 : Wings (0 = absent, 1 = present) Character-4 : Eggs (0 = present, 1 = absent, livebirth) Character-5 : Bones (0 = solid, 1 = hollow) Character-6 : Diet (0 = carnivorous, 1 = herbivorous) We are led to the character tally: Character O = fossil dino A = gull B = hum-bird C = macaque D = bobcat 1 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 1 1 5 0 1 1 0 0 6 0 0 1 1 0 Let’s compute a phenetic matching ( above diag ) matrix (both 1-1 and 0-0 are matches): O = fossil dino A = gull B = hum-bird C = macaque D = bobcat O = fossil dino --- 3 2 3 4 A = gull --- 3 0 1 B = hum-bird --- 1 0 C = macaque --- 5 D = bobcat --- For phenetic matching, we match (C-D) = 5. The next closest match is O with the (C-D) pair = [(O- C) + (O-D)]/2 = (3 + 4)/2 = (3.5); we then match (A-B) = 3, and finally (A-B) with (O-C-D) = [(A-O) + (A-C) + (A-D) + (B-O) + (B-C) + (B-O)]/6 = (3+0+1+2+1+0)/6 = 7/6 = 1.1667, yielding:
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