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ALS8Q - Section 8 Periodic Properties of the Elements in...

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Section 8/ Periodic Properties of the Elements in the Periodic Table / SKH Bishop Baker Secondary School AL Chemistry Section 8 Periodic Properties of the Elements in the Periodic Table 85 IIA Q.6 Use the data in the table to answer the question below : sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulphur chlorine Atomic Radius (nm) 0.156 0.136 0.125 0.117 0.110 0.104 0.099 Ionic Radius of the most stable ion (nm) 0.095 0.065 0.050 0.184 0.181 1st Ionization Energy (kJ mol - 1 ) 492 743 579 791 1060 1003 1254 Melting Point (K) 371 923 932 1683 317 392 172 Boiling Point (K) 1163 1390 2720 2950 554 718 239 The atomic radii, ionic radii, and 1st ionization energies of the elements in the above table show a general trend across the Periodic Table. This is however not the case with the melting points and boiling points. (a) Give the reason for the decrease in atomic radii across the Periodic Table. (2 marks) (b) Compare the corresponding values of ionic and atomic radii and comment on the differences. (4 marks) (c) Explain why there is a general trend in 1st ionization energies and suggest explanations for each of the discrepancies. (4 marks) (d) What are the factors that influence the melting points shown in the table ? (3 marks) (e) The boiling points of sodium, magnesium and aluminium are much higher than their melting points. This is not the case for phosphorus, sulphur and chlorine. Why is this? (2 marks) (f) Draw the structures of silicon and sulphur in the crystalline state. (2 marks) 86 IA Q.2 (e) The plot in the diagram below shows the first ionization energies for the elements Ne, Na, Mg and Al, relative to one another. On the same diagram, plot the relative positions of their second ionization energies.
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