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5_kinetics

5_kinetics - < kinetic/AL90P1_2d 2(d Consider the reaction...

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<<< kinetic/AL90P1_2d 2. (d) Consider the reaction A(l) + B(l) -----> C(l) + D(l) which is first order with respect to A, but second order with respect to B. (i) Give a rate expression for this reaction. (ii) Draw and label suitable straight line graphs that would allow the rate constant to be determined from a series of experiments in which : [A] is kept constant, but [B] is altered; [B] is kept constant, but [A] is altered. (4 marks) <<< rate/AL90/IIA 1c 1. (c) Give, with explanations, two factors that would increase the rate of a reaction. (4 marks) <<< kinetics/AL91P1_2b 2. (b) The energy profile of the reaction A(g) + B(g) C(g) under two different catalysts X and Y are represented below. (i) What is the effect of increasing temperature on the equilibrium of each system? (ii) What is the effect of decreasing pressure on the equilibrium of each system? (iii) Compare the effect of increasing temperature on the rate of reaction in the two systems. (iv) Why could the use of a different catalyst change the order of the reaction? (7 marks) <<< kinetics/AL91P2_3a 3. (a) For the reaction 2XY(g) -----> X 2 (g) + Y 2 (g), the rate constant is 3.91 × 10 -4 mol -1 dm 3 s -1 at 370 o C and 4.02 × 10 -2 mol -1 dm 3 s -1 at 470 o C. Generally the rate constant of a reaction is related to the temperature by k = A exp(-E a /RT). Calculate (i) the activation energy (i i) the rate constant at 450 o C. (Gas constant, R = 8.31 J K -1 mol -1 ) (6 marks) <<< kinetics/AL92P1_2a 2. (a) For the first order reaction

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products A k → the integrated form of the rate equation is [A] = [A] o e -kt , where [A] and [A] o are the concentrations of A at time = t and time = 0 respectively. (i) Starting from this equation, derive the relationship between the half-life 2 1 t of the reaction and the rate constant k. (i i) Without using the half-life method, show how you would determine the rate constant k from a set of experimental measurement of concentration at various times. (3 marks) <<< kinetics/AL92P2_2a 2. (a) In acid solution, chlorate(V) ions, ClO 3 - , slowly oxidize chloride ions to chlorine. The following kinetic data are obtained at 25 o C. [ClO 3 - ]/mol dm -3 [Cl - ]/mol dm -3 [H + ]/mol dm -3 Initial rate/mol dm -3 s -1 0.08 0.15 0.20 1.0 × 10 -5 0.08 0.15 0.40 4.0 × 10 -5 0.16 0.15 0.40 8.0 × 10 -5 0.08 0.30 0.20 2.0 × 10 -5 (i) Write the balanced equation for this reaction. (ii) Determine the order of the reaction with respect to each reaction. (iii) Determine the rate constant at this temperature. (6 marks) <<< kinetics/AL93P1_1c 1. (c) Consider the energy diagram shown below for a certain reaction which takes place with three steps. (i) Which is the rate-determining step? Explain. (i i)
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5_kinetics - < kinetic/AL90P1_2d 2(d Consider the reaction...

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