ALS4Q - Section 4 Bonding and Structure I(4.1 4.4 Ionic...

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Section 4/ Bonding and Structure I (4.1 - 4.4 Ionic bonding and Covalent bonding) / SKH Bishop Baker Secondary School AL Chemistry Section 4 Bonding and Structure I (4.1 - 4.4 Ionic bonding and Covalent bonding) 80 IB Q.7 (d) Diffraction studies on gaseous nitric(V) acid show that it contains two different N - O bonds with lengths of 0.141 nm and 0.122 nm, respectively. (i) Draw the structure of a nitric(V) acid molecule, indicating the values of bond length and giving approximate bond angles. (2 marks) (ii) Why are there two different bond lengths in nitric(V) acid ? (2 marks) (iii) What would you expect the bond lengths of the N - O bonds to be in a nitrate ion ? (1 mark) 80 IIB Q. 6 (e) Draw a sketch showing the shape of the following chemical species, indicating by a numerical value the approximate bond angles. (i) S 8 (ii) ICl 2 - (2 marks) (f) (i) What is the shape of the molecule BCl 3 ? (ii) What is the hybridization state of s and p orbitals which is used to account for this stereochemistry of boron ? (2 marks) (g) Aluminium(III) chloride forms an addition compound with triethylamine. (i) What is the likely composition of this addition compound ? (ii) What is the nature of bonding involved in this addition compound ? (2 marks) 80 IIB Q.7 (a) Phosphorus and nitrogen belong to the same group, but they are quite different in their chemistry. Suggest brief explanations for the following : (i) Nitrogen only forms a trichloride whilst phosphorus gives both a trichloride and pentachloride. (ii) The H - P - H angle in phosphine is 93 o whilst the H - N - H angle in ammonia is almost tetrahedral. (iii) Phosphine has a very low solubility in water. (7 marks) (b) The structure of PCl 5 in the gaseous state is different from that in the solid state. Give its structure in these two states. (3 marks) 81 IA Q.4 (b) For the compounds in the table below, indicate (i) by using ‘I’ for ionic and ‘C’ for covalent, the nature of the primary bond, and (ii) by using ‘(s)’ for solid, ‘(l) for liquid and ‘(g)’ for gas, the physical state at room temperature 1
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Section 4/ Bonding and Structure I (4.1 - 4.4 Ionic bonding and Covalent bonding) / and atmospheric pressure. (2 marks) (i) Nature of Bond (ii) Physical State RbH CaF 2 AsH 3 GeCl 4 (c) Arrange the following in order of increasing size : Ba 2+ , SO 4 2 - , Al 3+ , VO 2 + . (2 marks) (d) (i) What is the shape of the molecule PF 5 ? (ii) What is the hybridisation in the bonding of nitrogen in the NH 4 + ion ? (1 mark) 81 IIB Q. 6 (e) NF 3 is trigonal pyramidal whereas BF 3 is trigonal planar. Briefly explain this difference. (2 marks) 82 IA Q.2 (b) Complete the following table on the classification of crystalline solids : Ionic Covalent Molecular Metallic Units constituting the crystal lattice +ve and -ve ions Binding force holding the constituent units Example (one each) sodium chloride (5 marks) (c) Fine jets of water and tetrachloromethane are separately run from a burette into a beaker, as shown in the diagram below: What would you expect to observe when a positively charged rod is brought near to each liquid jet in turn ?
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