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bis_104_pq_4_ans_spring_08 - The investigators now have...

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BIS 104 PQ 4 ans fall 07 The results depicted in Figure 1 strongly suggest that there is a relationship between the branching pattern of peripheral nerves (2H3-positive cells) and arterial endothelial cells (EphrinB2-positive cells) in mouse limb skin at 15.5 days. In their next series of experiments (results shown in fig.2) Mukouyama, et al., sought to determine exactly when arterial endothelial cells begin to differentiate (express EphrinB2 protein). In these experiments (fig. 20 they introduced two additional markers, NP1 and connexin40 (CX40). Why were these particular markers chosen for these experiments? CX40 is a gap junction protein that is expressed only in arteries. NP1 is a co-receptor for VEGF and appears only on arterial endothelial cells. Therefore, both of these proteins serve as specific markers, that along with EphrinB2, identify differentiated arterial cells.
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Unformatted text preview: The investigators now have three independent molecular markers that specifically detect arterial cells. Describe the results of this experiment. By testing skin samples from younger embryos (E11 – E14.5 days) it was seen that peripheral nerves (2H3 positive cells) appeared first, and that EphrinB2 positive branching arteries appeared only in the later stages (e.g., weak staining at E13; stronger staining by E15.5). What conclusions may be drawn from these results? The differentiation of arterial endothelial cells occurs only after peripheral nerves have been established. It is therefore plausible that peripheral nerves are responsible for arterial differentiation since their patterning precedes that of the arteries....
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