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Polymer00015 - particles The two most widely used...

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4 1.3 Mechanisms of Reinforcement and Nanofillers Fillers have been used in the formulation of polymer composites since early years of the polymer industry. It has been found that fillers can not only function as cost-reducing materials, but also act as reinforcing materials in polymer composites and rubbers to improve their tensile strength (Ten et al. 2010), modulus (Schmidt and Giannelis 2010), tear resistance (Peng et al. 2007), and abrasion resistance (Avella, et al. 2001). Therefore, very few rubber compounds are prepared without the addition of substantial quantities of fillers. The performance of fillers in the rubber matrix is controlled by its characteristics, such as particle size, concentration, shape, structure of particle agglomerates and degree of interactions with the matrix (Jiang, et al. 2007). The degree of bonding between filler particles and rubber matrix is a key factor in determining the reinforcing effects of the
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Unformatted text preview: particles. The two most widely used reinforcing fillers in the rubber industry are carbon black and clay. For example, Heinrich and Vilgis (1993) reported that carbon black showed an influence on crosslinking of polybutadiene and significantly increased its shear modulus. Also, fully exfoliated clay in epoxy matrix improved the storage modulus apparently (Park and Jana 2003). In order to achieve maximum reinforcement, the loading of these fillers should be appreciably high, which often creates processing problems. However, if the size of the fillers is in nano scale, the introduction of these nano-sized (e.g. nanoclay, nanosilica, etc.) fillers can result in polymer nanocomposites exhibiting multifunctional, high-performance characteristics beyond what traditional filled polymeric materials possess. Although layered silicate nanocomposites have been prepared and characterized for many thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers, much...
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