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Polymer00038 - two-step treatment method improved the...

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27 The ammonium salt has two alkyl (tallow) tails and hydroxyl group attached to either the tallow tail or the ammonium head (Yang and Tsai 2007). Silicon dioxide nanoparticle (~10 nm) was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, and graphite from Fisher Scientific. In addition, we also prepared the fluoroaliphatic quaternary ammonium fluorosurfactant (FS-1620, DuPont) treated nanoclay (designated as ― FS-clay ‖) following the method in the literature (Thomassin et al. 2006). 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, a silane coupling agent used to treat silica was purchase from Acros Organics. 2.3.2 Silica and Graphite Treatments Silica is usually treated with silane coupling agents to increase its interfacial bonding with polymer matrix and improve its dispersion in the matrix (Iijima, et al. 2007). Many factors affect the effects of silane treatment. Chaimberg and Cohen (1990) found that a
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Unformatted text preview: two-step treatment method improved the amount of chemisorbed coupling agents, with the degree of improvement depending on the pH value of the treatment environment. Kamiya et al. (2004) reported that the diameter of silica particles significantly affected their surface properties. In this thesis study, a silane application guide from the producer of the agent was followed (Advanced Polymer, INC., 2009). The treatment environment was kept pH neutral. The concentration of the aqueous silane solution was 3.5%. The amount of required silane was calculated based on the following equation: where M is the amount of silane, m is amount of silica, A is the surface area of silica and A c is the minimum coating area of silane coupling agent. In our study, the surface area of M=m * A / A c...
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