Psychophysics is the field of study which is concerned with how the physical properties of stimuli are related to out
psychological experience of them. They have also studied how the strengths or intensity of a stimulus affects the strength of
sensation in an observer. Sensory adaptation is defined as the reduction or disappearance of sensory responsiveness when
stimulation is unchanging or repetitious. Receptors or nerves cells higher up in the sensory system get "tired" and fire less
frequently. The resulting decline in sensory responsiveness is call sensory adaptation. Sensation is defined as the detection of
physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects; it occurs when energy in the external environment or the body
stimulates receptors in the sense organs. (the eyes, ears, tongue, noise, skin and internal body tissues. Perception is defined as the
process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory information; a set of mental operations that organizes sensory
impulses into meaningful patterns.
Perceptual Constancy is defined as the accurate perception of objects as stable or unchanged despite changes in the sensory
patterns they produce.
Shape Constancy: an object perceived as having constant shape even though the shape of the retinal image produced by
the objects changes when our point of view changes.
Location Constancy: A stationary objects seen as remaining in the same place even though the retinal image moves
about as we move our eyes, heads and bodies.
Size Constancy: An object that has a constant size even when its retinal image becomes smaller or larger.
Brightness Constancy: An object that is seen having a relatively constant brightness even though the amount of light
they reflect changes as the overall level of illumination changes.
Color Constancy: An object that is seen to having maintained its hue despite the fact that the wavelength of light
reaching our eyes from the object may change as the illumination changes.
Gestalt Principals are defined as principals that describe the brain's organization of sensory information into meaningful units and
patterns. For example, when you go outside on a clear night and look up to the sky, the way the stars arrange themselves in such
closeness it tricks us into seeing them bunched together to form a pattern. This is how we see the Big Dipper.
The parts of the ear consist of the following: Outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, auditory canal, semicircular canals, and auditory
nerve leading to brain, cochlea, oval window (membrane), "Stirrup" bone, "Anvil" bone, "Hammer" bone, eardrum, middle ear
cavity, hair cells (cilia), basilar membrane, and fluid. They covert sound to hearing by collecting sound waves by the outer ear,
the sound waves are channeled down the auditory canal, causing the eardrum to vibrate. These vibrations are then passed along to
tiny bones of the middle ear. Movement of these bones intensifies the force of the vibrations separating the middle the force of