Chapter 32 - Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War

Chapter 32 - Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War

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Chapter 32 Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War I. Introduction A. After World War II 1. Soviets create an empire that dominates Eastern Europe 2. Western Europe recovers, but not totally dominant 3. US breaks from isolationist and turns international B. Cold War - democratic capitalism vs. communism 1. Led to alliances and arms race C. Western Europe 1. Turned to service based economy 2. Social transformation > more roles for women 3. Democracy had firm roots - unlike decades before 4. Europe started to work together not as indepedent nationalistic nations D. Soviet Union turns industrialist 1. New world role 2. Science exploration and sports achievement II. After World War II: International Setting for the West A. Introduction 1. Infrastructure of Europe destroyed - bombings 2. Boundary changes + forced labor = refugees 3. USSR and USA size/industrial strength dwarf European nation-states B. Europe and Its Colonies 1. Two major changes - decolonization and cold war a. Colonies 1. Only maintainable at a high cost 2. French finally give up Vietnam in 1954 - costly defeats 3. French finally give up Algeria in 1962 - almost civil war 4. Most independence achieved peacefully a. France/Belgium actually intervened/helped later 5. West continues to economically exploit Africa 2. Decolonization's Effect on Europe a. Returning settlers ticked off b. Europe's role in world affairs minimal 1. Suez Canal crisis of 1956 symbolic shift 2. War ends only after US and USSR end it 3. Europe goes on without colonies C. The Cold War 1. Lines drawn immediately after WWII a. Eastern bloc emerges 1. Soviet troops remained 2. Communist governments amazingly elected 3. USSR gets more Western lands 4. Having base in East Berlin - Soviets in heart of W. Europe b. US and Britain respond 1. Churchill claims iron curtain has descended - free/repressed a. Britain no power to defend views 2. US takes more active stance - having bomb helps
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a. Refuses loans to rebuild eastern Europe b. Gives money to Iran, Turkey, Greece to avoid communism c. Marshall Plan - tons of money to W. Europe i. US now has tons of influence 2. Focal point in early years - Germany a. US wants to build economically successful W. Germany - combat commies b. US tries to stabilize German currency - USSR bitter at US for being nice 1. Cuts off all roads into Berlin - even West Berlin 2. US responds with Berlin Airlift 3. NATO created - W. Europe plus Canada a. Military alliance b. Rearms W. Germany c. Goal - combatting communism 4. USSR responds with Warsaw Pact and gets the bomb 5. Cold War effects on W. Europe a. US influences policy of Europe 1. Larger military budgets for France/Britain 2. Rearm W. Germany b. Why would they listen to US? 1. Hold rebuilding money
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Chapter 32 - Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War

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