Chapter 33 - Latin America Revolution and Reaction Into the 21st Century

Chapter 33 - Latin America Revolution and Reaction Into the 21st Century

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Chapter 33 Latin America: Revolution and Reaction Into the 21 st Century I. Introduction a. General Augusto Pinochet 1. Former commander of Chilean army brought up on crimes against humanity a. Seized power from leftist Salvador Allende in 1973 b. Brutal repression – thousands killed/tortured c. Fascistesque 2. Symbolic of larger issue – what to do about L. American dictators 3. L. American century battle between forces of revolution and reaction b. Latin America – a third world continent 1. Shared traits of Africa/Asia, but… 2. Western social/political structures 3. Economic links to US and Europe 4. Again focused on exports – vulnerable to world demand a. Political, cultural, economic dependency cycle continued c. Theme – Decolonization = economic freedom + cultural/political that matches L. America 1. Becomes more industrial – leads to labor movement 2. Growing urban middle class begins to play a role d. Latin American patterns 1. Economic expansion – conservative reaction to maintain political power 2. Economic crisis – chance to break patterns/expand social justice e. More continuities than changes 1. Can’t replace old system w/ agreed upon new system 2. But…better education, social services, treatment of women, industry II. Latin America After World War II A. Introduction 1. Brazil and Argentina ruled by reformers w/ populist agenda 2. Even when Peron – Argentina – expelled, power of mvmt still evident a. Military forced to repress to maintain control b. Military tried to gain prestige/nationalism in war for Falkland Islands B. Mexico and the PRI 1. PRI – Party of the Institutionalized Revolution (huh?) a. Stability provided – controls politics – one-party system, but… b. Political corruption and failure to improve social c. Whatever happened to revolutionary ideals? 2. 1994 Zapatistas revolt in Chiapas – frustrated a. Problem solved through repression/negotiation 3. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) – unclear if successful a. Attempt to improve political situation b. Trade increases, but… c. Middle class gets rich and large income gap between middle class and poor 4. 2000 PRI finally defeated by Vicente Fox – PAN party a. Platform – end corruption, improve life for Mexican workers in US III. Radical Options in the 1950s
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A. Introduction 1. What are possible solutions to improve economic and social conditions?
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