Chapter 34 - Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence

Chapter 34 - Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence

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Chapter 34 Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence I. Introduction A. Real struggle of revolutions is after liberation has been won a. How to build prosperous societies/strong gov’ts b. When you have decades/centuries of colonial rule B. Realities of fragile state structure/underdeveloped economies a. Ethnic/religious divisions become more pronounced C. Departing colonizers left economies in shambles a. To get independence, concessions made to Europeans i. They still benefit economically b. Shortage of expertise/resources c. Rapidly growing populations D. Reactions destroy environment – anything to survive a. Can’t afford anti-pollution devices b. Alarming air, water, soil pollution II. The Challenges of Independence A. Introduction a. Nationalist movements usually had mass interest i. Promised jobs, civil rights, equality ii. Once Europeans gone, enough to go around – utopia b. Unfortunately, not enough to go around i. Lack of resources, plus unequal distribution c. After failure of utopia i. Bitter rivalries pop up again ii. Ethnic groups thrown together by European random boundaries 1. Sometimes nations split – Pakistan > Bangladesh 2. Causes famine and starvation 3. Caused wars that stripped resources 4. All gov’t can do is keep nation from falling apart a. Can’t focus on other problems B. The Population Bomb a. Increasing population boom made industrialization difficult/impossible b. Factors that lead to population increase i. Colonial introduction 1. New crops 2. Order – not so many deaths from intertribal conflict 3. Transportation cut down on regional famines ii. Improved hygiene/medical treatment iii. Asia population gradually slowed, Africa’s still flying 1. Asia added to already big population 2. Africa had low population density – large land area a. At this rate, Niger could pass China b. But… i. AIDS epidemic could slow down ii. Entire continent’s economic output equals Illinois iv. How European control hurt 1. Limiting industrialization made it impossible to deal with growth a. No factories for labor b. Couldn’t sell goods to draw food from other nations v. Resistance to birth control 1. Procreation = male virility
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2. Male children increases social standing of woman 3. Religious beliefs a. Hindu – soul can’t move on until eldest son performs ceremony 4. Core social group in Africa a. Lineage based 5. Difference in need for women a. Asia has dowry/occupational restrictions – not as needed b. Africa women key to agriculture and market 6. Gov’t hesitant to implement birth control reform – we can handle it 7. Education expensive and difficult – limited literacy vi. Infant mortality rates 1. 75% mortality rates instilled need to have a ton of kids a. Children become workforce b. Children can take care of parents – nations lack welfare 2. Since infant mortality rates have changed, #s go up C. Parasitic Cities and Endangered Ecosystems a. Emerging nations outstripped available land > massive urbanization
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Chapter 34 - Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence

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