Chapter 35 - Rebirth and Revolution Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim

Chapter 35 - Rebirth and Revolution Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim

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Chapter 35 Chapter 35 Rebirth and Revolution: Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim I.Introduction i. Japan the anomaly in non-Western societies a. Fought imperialism & high level of industrialization b. Imitation of Western rivals - imperialist tendencies ii. Korea has also emerged as leading industrial center iii. China and Vietnam resemble other emerging nations a. Suffered from exploitive terms of exchange w/ West b. Had to deal with underdevelopment, overpopulation c. And..poverty and environmental degradation d. Sound familiar? e. But...they also saw collapse of 1000 year civilization iv. Confucian system destroyed in Vietnam and China a. External aggression + internal upheaval b. Imperialism destroyed political institutions i. Left nothing for nation-building v. Recent themes a. Confucianism and traditions reworked/adapted b. Economic development c. Growing independence and self-assertion II. East Asia in th Postwar Settlements A. Introduction i. Divisions after WWII a. Korea divided between Russian/US zone b. Taiwan returned to China - ruled by Chiang Kai Shek c. US regained Philippines, pledged quick turnover w/ bases d. Europeans retook control of Vietnam, Malay and Indonesia e. Japan occupied by US forces B. New Divisions and the End of Empires i. Decolonization led to independence for Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines ii. Taiwan ruled by Chiang Kai Shek, mainland to Mao a. Taiwan emergs as separate republic iii. US intervention preserves South Korean independence C. Japanese Recovery i. Recovered economy in surprising speed a. US provided opportunity for selective westernization ii. New political system a. Ruled by General Douglas MacArthur b. Got rid of wartime political structure i. military disbanded ii. police decentralized iii. officials removed iv. political prisoners released c. Democratization i. women suffrage ii. encouraging labor unions iii. abolishing Shintoism as state religion d. People in favor of demilitarization e. Parliament system easy to incorporate - already have history iii. New economic pattern
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a. Broke up landed estates b. Tried, but failed to break up zaibatsus iv. Other changes a. Military abolished forever - unique for industrialized nation b. Emperor becomes symbolic figurehead only c. 1963 law for taking care of elderly v. Japanese society a. Education - reduced nationalism in textbooks i. Back to state control after occupation ii. Have to teach tradition to children b. Extreme meritocracy - rigid examination system D. Korea: Intervention and War i. Gave Russia control of north in exchange for potential help against Japan ii. North Korea - People's Democratic Republic of Korea a. Communist totalitarian state - Kim Il-Sung until 1994 iii. South Korea - Republic of Korea a. Parliamentary institutions but authoritarian iv. Korean War a. 1950-1953 - N. Korea invades, S. Korea + United Nations pushes back b. China gets invovlved, pushes back to original borders c. Sign armistice v. Two divergent paths since then a. N. Korea - isolated one-man rule i. Power to one political party + military b. S. Korea - w/ help from US economic + military bases vi. Tensions continued between two nations with border clashes
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