Chapter 1 – From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations

Chapter 1 – From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations

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- AP World History - Stearns Chapter 1 – From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations I. Introduction A. Human origin – 2.5 million years ago 1. 1/4000 of earth’s existence – 24 hour day – last 5 minutes B. Human negatives and positives 1. Aggressiveness, long baby time, back problems, death fears 2. Grip, high/regular sex drive, omnivores, facial expressions, speech C. Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age – 2.5 million to 12000 BCE 1. Simple tools – increase in size, brain capacity – Homo erectus II. Late Paleolithic Developments A. Homo sapiens sapiens – 120,000 years ago – killed off others? a. Population growth required change – 1 square mile to hunt/gather for 2 people i. Long breast feeding – limit fertility ii. Relative gender equality – women harder, but both contributed b. Rituals for death, explain environment, rules for social behavior c. Greatest achievement – spread over earth i. Fire/animal skin ii. 14,000 Great ice age ended d. Tools – sharpen animal bones, rafts e. Domesticated animals f. Conflicts w/ others – bone breaks/skull fractures B. Knowledge based on cave paintings, tool remains, burial sites III. Neolithic (New Stone) Age Revolution A. Agriculture changed everything – could support more people 1. Settle one spot – focus on economic, political, religious goals 2. 14,000-10,000 BCE – 6 million to 100 million people B. Causes of Agriculture 1. Population increase – better climate 2. Big game animals decreasing – hunting yield declined 3. Gradual change – harvesting wild grains to planting seeds C. New animals domesticated – pigs, sheep, goats, cattle 1. Meat, skins, dairy 2. Advantage to Europe? D. Why Middle East? 1. Water source, fertile area, not forested, lacked animals E. “Revolution” gradual – many combined changes w/ hunting gathering – 1000 years F. Effects 1. Longer work week – labor intensive 2. Build houses, villages 3. Varied clothing G. Resistance – too complicated, boring, difficult 1. Disease – those in villages developed immunity – nomads died off/joined 2. Some isolated societies still avoid a. Harsh climate, no exchange of knowledge b. Tough, nomadic invaders
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3. Nomads – not that influential accept for interaction
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