Chapter 3 – Classical Civilization India

Chapter 3 – Classical Civilization India -...

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AP World History - Stearns Chapter 3 – Classical Civilization: India I. Introduction – difference vs. China a. China focus on politics/related philosophies vs. India focus on religion/social structure b. Less cohesive political structure c. Both were agricultural societies, localist flavor, male ownership, patriarchal, trade II. The Framework for Indian History: Geography and a Formative Period a. Closer to other civilizations 1. Influenced by Middle East/Mediterranean 2. Persian Empires spilled over/Alexander also 3. . Forced to react and adapt b. Topography 1. Passes through Himalayas linked India 2. Somewhat set apart 3. Political unity difficult – greater diversity than middle kingdom c. River civilizations – Indus and Ganges d. Mountainous north – herding society e. Separate regions contributed to: 1. economic diversity 2. racial differences 3. language differences f. Unstable, monsoon climate – but helped with agriculture 1. Harvest two crops in a year, help support large population g. Formative period – Vedic and Epic ages – Aryan migrants – hunting and herding peoples 1. Knowledge passed down through epics written in Sanskrit – Vedas a. Mahabharata b. Ramayana c. Upanishads 2. Aryans settled, made tight-knit villages a. Families patriarchal, connected across generation b. Aryans created social classes a. Warrior/governing – Kshatriyas b. Priests – Brahmins c. Traders/farmers – Vaisyas d. Common laborers – Sudras e. Untouchables – refuse, transporting dead bodies, other lovely jobs c. Social groups became hereditary 1. Can’t marry between castes – punishable by death 2. Broken into smaller subgroups d. Aryans brought polytheistic religion – similar to Greek myth, Scandinavians a. One of few polytheistic religions to survive 1. Hymns/sacrifice e. Upanishads – epic poems a. Sacred animals – monkeys/cattle b. Rituals and sacrifice c. Brahmin class enforced rituals d. Unifying divine force, seek union with this force III. Patterns in Classical India – end of 600 BCE – formative phase
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A. 16 major states existed – some monarchies, some republics – dominated by warriors/priests B. Eras often created as reaction to invaders C. Mauryan Dynasty – Chandragupta Mauryan 322BCE – unified subcontinent a. maintained large armies b. developed bureaucracy c. highly autocratic – rely on ruler’s power d. style of govt i. autocratic – based on ruler’s personal/military power e. Ashoka – grandson – lavish lifestyle i. influenced by nature/spiritualism
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Chapter 3 – Classical Civilization India -...

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