Chapter 04 - Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean Greece and Rome

Chapter 04 - Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean Greece and Rome

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Chapter 4 Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and Rome I. Introduction A. Mediterranean culture 1. Greece slowed Persian empire, set up a few colonies, but… 2. Rome known for empire 3. New institutions/values that would remain in western culture 4. “our own” Classical past a. U.S. Constitution b. buildings in the U.S. c. founders of the philosophical tradition d. Socratic method B. Greco-Roman history 1. more dynamic, but less successful * We can clearly recognize the connections and our own debt without adhering to the notion that the Mediterranean world somehow dominated the classical period. 2. Complicated – passed through two centers a. Rome preserved many of Greek achievements C. Rome vs. Greece 1. Mighty empire vs. inept/Greek city-states 2. Mastered engineering vs. scientific thought 3. western Europe – Greco Roman vs. Eastern Europe – Greek influence 4. Shared a. political ideas b. common religion c. artistic styles d. economic structures II. The Persian Tradition A. 550 BCE Cyrus the Great – massive Persian Empire across Middle East 1. Tolerant of local customs 2. Advanced iron technology 3. Zoroastrianism 4. artistic lifestyle 5. Conquered by Alexander the Great 6. Persian language and culture survived into the 20 th century III. Patters of Greek and Roman History A. Greece 1. Crete – showed Egyptian influence by 2000 a. Monumental architecture 2. 1400 Mycenae – kingdom Trojan War a. Indo-Europeans destroyed until 800 – Dark Ages 3. Rise from 800-600 strong city-states a. tyrant or aristocratic council b. divided by mountains 1. unified government difficult 2. trade developed
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c. written language came from Phoenician alphabet d. regular celebrations 1. athletic competitions – Olympic games e. Sparta/Athens rose to the top 1. Sparta – military tradition dominated slves 2. Athens – commercial state, slaves, artistic/intellectual leadership 3. 4. 5 th century – Democracy in Athens a. Pericles - most famous political figure 1. No official position, but influence/negotiation b. each citizen participated c. eventually Spartan/Athenian war weakens both sides 1. Peloponnesian Wars – weakened Greece a. Philip II of Macedon came down and took over b. Alexander the Great then kept going to Persia 1. 13 years of conquests – 33 2. Successor kingdoms ruled for centuries 3. Hellenistic period – Greek art/culture merges 4. Trade flourished 5. Scientific centers – Alexandria 6. Greece decline, but legacy carries on B. Rome 1. Started under control of monarchy in 800 – defeated in 509
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This note was uploaded on 08/18/2011 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Troy during the Spring '11 term at Campbell University .

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Chapter 04 - Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean Greece and Rome

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