Chapter 05 - The Classical Period Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E.

Chapter 05 - The Classical Period Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E.

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 5 The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E. I. Expansion and Integration A. Key point – how did classical civilizations adjust to expansion 1. Between 550>400 BCE Confucius, Laozi, Buddha, Socrates a. Need to articulate central values B. How did they all unite? 1. China – more centralized 2. Mediterranean – more localized/diverse 3. India – key religious values – not as vulnerable to collapse – like Rome C. What are the two challenges of integration? 1. Territorial – how to command a. China – language for elite, resettlement b. Rome – local autonomy, tolerance c. India – spread caste system 2. Social – inequality between men/women – upper/lower class a. China – hierarchy – deference – obedience – Confucian b. India – caste system c. Rome – slavery D. How to maintain cohesion? 1. Rome – promise of upward mobility 2. China – mutual respect between upper and lower 3. India – future reincarnation into higher form if good life II. Beyond the Classical Civilizations A. Some as border civilizations, some entirely independent 1. Wider trade patterns B. Africa – Kush – hieroglyphics, iron, monarchy 1. Defeated by Axum, then Ethiopia a. Ethiopian Christian church cut off from Greeks – isolated b. Ethiopia – by 20 th century – oldest uninterrupted monarchy 2. Farming on southern border of Sahara – regional kingdoms a. Agriculture spread slowly – dense vegetation, diseases on domesticated b. Eventually farmed new crops, traded w/ Asia C. Japan – 200 CE extensive agriculture – migrations from Korea over 200,000 year period 1. tribal chiefs – each tribe had own god 2. Chinese visitor – law-abiding, fond of drink, experts agriculture a. Tattoos to separate social classes 3. Shintoism – worship political rulers and spirits of nature – eventually nationalized 4. 400 CE – one regional ruler took over surrounding territories a. By 600 CE began trading/interacting with Chinese civilization D. Northern Europe – lagged behind Japan – most backward areas in the world 1. Regional kingdoms – no written language – except Latin imports a. Primitive agriculture and hunting 2. Gods and rituals to deal with nature a. Not until 1000 CE did Christianity truly unite E. Central America – Olmec civilization – more advanced than Europe/Africa 1. Corn staple food crop, but few domesticated animals 2. Olmec culture a. Artistic forms – jade
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
b. religious images – animals and humans c. science – accurate calendars 3. Successors made Teotihuacan – great city, later taken over by Maya – 400 CE on 4. Olmecs similar to Sumerians – foundation 5. Incas in Peru/Bolivia – isolation form world – couldn’t copy and react
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 5

Chapter 05 - The Classical Period Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E.

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online