Chapter 14 - The Last Great Nomadic Challenges From Chinggis Khan to Timur

Chapter 14 - The Last Great Nomadic Challenges From Chinggis Khan to Timur

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Chapter 14 The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur I. Introduction A. Mongols ended/interrupted many great postclassical empires B. Extended world network – foundation for interaction on global scale C. Forged mightiest war machine D. Four khanates – sons divided 1. Ruled for 150 years 2. Last time nomadic peoples dominated sedentary peoples E. Paradox of rule – fierce fighters vs. tolerant/peaceful leaders II. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan A. Introduction 1. difficult to organize before Chinggis Khan a. divisions/rivalries b. Khan – astute political strategist/brilliant military commander 2. Nomadic world – horse culture a. Lived on herds – meat, milk, traded hides for grain/vegetables b. Tough little ponies c. Children ride from early age d. Could even sleep/eat on horse 1. Animal power/seasonal migrations 2. Movable shelters e. Political organization 1. Like Bedouins – kin/clan based – combined in confederations when needed 2. Men dominated but women could influence tribal meetings/home 3. Leadership qualities – courage, alliance forging ability B. The Making of a Great Warrior: The Early Career of Chinggis Khan 1. Born Temujin to tribal leader, but father poisoned 2. Imprisoned by rival clan, but escapes a. Makes alliance with another clan 3. Reputation as warrior/military commander attracted other clan chiefs 4. 1206 at kuriltai meeting – named khagan – extreme ruler C. Building the Mongol War Machine 1. Natural warriors a. trained from youth to ride/hunt b. tough, mobile, accustomed to death c. variety of weapons – lances, hatchets, maces 1. Short bow the best – 400 yard range vs. 250 European 2. Chinggis Khan’s leadership a. organization, discipline, unity b. directed fighting spirit toward conquest c. divided groups into tumens – think centurions of Rome 3. Messenger force – tightly bandages – ride all day/night 4. Military discipline – killed if flee 5. Generosity fto brave foes 6. Utilized excellent maps 7. New weapons – flaming arrows, gunpowder, siege weapons a. Willing to adopt from conquered groups
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D. Conquest: The Mongol Empire Under Chinggis Khan 1. Ruled over ½ million Mongols 2. Greatest pleasure making war – campaigns a. fortified cities – willing to adopt weapons of other nations 1. developed siege weapons i. rams, catapults, exploding balls ii. bamboo rockets b. threatened terrifying retribution – surrender or else 1. slaughtered/sold townspeople
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Chapter 14 - The Last Great Nomadic Challenges From Chinggis Khan to Timur

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