Chapter 15 - The West and the Changing World Balance

Chapter 15 - The West and the Changing World Balance -...

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Chapter 15 Notes The West and the Changing World Balance I. Introduction A. 1400 – world in period of transition 1. Downfall of Arab caliphate 2. Spread of Mongols 3. Who would take new international trade role? Maybe China? B. But…Enter the Europeans – finally, they’ve been behind everyone for 8000 years 1. Italy, Spain, Portugal took leadership role 2. Americas couldn’t respond to European invasions C. Key question – why did different civilizations react differently? 1. This could be a key question – notice the word differences a. This class just loves to compare civilizations II. The Decline of the Old Order A. 1200 – Middle East run by Byzantine Empire (North) – Arab Empire (South) 1. But…Turks took over Byzantines in 1453, 1258 Mongols - Caliph B. Social and Cultural Change in the Middle East 1. Religious leaders gained power over artistic leaders in Arab world a. New piety – think about orthodox Muslims today b. Religious art themes c. Rationalism of Greece (Hellenism) now seen as bad, a threat 1. …don’t think this is just Arab world, Europeans getting scared of logic/rationalism as well 2. Economic shifts a. As centralized power slows, provincial leaders (landlords) get more power 1. Hmmm…what an interesting pattern I’ve never seen before b. But…bad things resulted 1. Lower agricultural yield 2. Less taxes 3. Less trade 4. Indian Ocean trade still strong c. A gradual decline, not sudden like in Rome d. But…even though politically weak, other political areas took more power 1. Ottoman Turks took over control – more powerful than before C. A Power Vaccum in International Leadership 1. Ottoman Turks not an international leader like Islamic caliphate 2. Mongols provided next global leader a. Encouraged interregional trade b. Exchanged technology/ideas c. End of empire turned to seaborne trade, as land trade less protected D. Chinese Thrust and Withdrawal 1. Ming “brilliant” dynasty took over 1368-1644 a. pushed out Mongols first b. re-established tributary links with Southeast Asian states 2. State-sponsored trade expeditions a. Admiraly Zhenghe – 1405-1433 led vast, unparalleled fleet
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This note was uploaded on 08/18/2011 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Troy during the Spring '11 term at Campbell University .

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Chapter 15 - The West and the Changing World Balance -...

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