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Chapter 18 - The Rise of Russia

Chapter 18 - The Rise of Russia - Chapter 18 Notes I...

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Chapter 18 Notes I. Introduction A. Land empire created between 1450-1750 1. Involved limited commercial exchange 2. Altered balance of power Asia/Europe 3. Expanded eastward into Asia B. Link to Eastern Europe 1. Some regional kingdoms 2. Conflict with Poland and Lithuania C. Changes of nation 1. Sense of separate identity 2. Reaction to Western influence – accept it, select from it, shun it II. Russia’s Expansionist Politics Under the Tsars A. First step – Break free from Mongol control 1. Moscow princes strong as tax collectors 2. Ivan III – Ivan the Great – large army – 1462 frees chunk i. Utilized support for Orthodox Church ii. Played off nationalism iii. 1480 totally freed of Mongol control B. Need for Revival 1. Basic Russian Values i. Under Mongols 1. Some adopted dress 2. Christianity maintained 3. Arts diminish 4. Economic hit – trade down/manufacturing limited a. Purely agricultural economy 2. Centralized Rule i. With imperial mission – make an empire ii. Connection to Byzantine Empire – married niece of empero 3. “Third Rome” – Caesar – Tsar 4. Ivan IV – Ivan the Terrible i. Killed many nobles (boyars) for alleged conspiracy 1. Nobles couldn’t stand up for selves – no tradition C. Patterns of Expansion 1. Central Asia i. Why? Push back Mongols ii. Vast plains easy to conquer/stage battles iii. Cossacks – Russian pioneers – horse + farm 1. Took over then settled lands 2. Skilled horsemen – think American cowboys/Mongol 2. Usages of expansion i. Land given to nobles for allegiance ii. Further east opened new trading relationships 3. Eliminated independent Central Asia i. Nomads gone ii. Diverse peoples added to Russia – multicultural empire 1. Like Mughal Empire/Ottoman Empire 2. Large Muslim minority D. Western Contact and Romanov Policy 1. Carefully managed contacts with the west i. Early contacts with British merchants ii. Imported Italian artists/architects to work on churches/palaces – onion iii. Nobles look to west for style/art/status - precedent 2. Conflict over heir to the throne i. After Ivan IV – Time of Trouble – disputes for throne – boyars ii. Romanov Dynasty chosen by boyars 3. Romanov’s reestablish order i. Stopped Swedish/Polish attacks ii. Expanded empire
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1. Met Ottoman Empire 2. Part of Ukraine 4. Alexis Romanov’s new powers i.
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