Chapter 19 - Early Latin America

Chapter 19 - Early Latin America - Chapter 19 Early Latin...

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Chapter 19 Early Latin America I. Introduction A. Cortes conquers Aztecs 1. Amazed at beauty of Tenochtitlan - uncomparable B. Pattern of conquest, continuity and rebuilding 1. Spanish tried to utilized Native resources similarly a. Used materials from ruins to build own houses b. Used similar forced labor system c. Allowed to follow ancient customs C. Impact of invasions 1. Huge Spanish/Portuguese empires 2. Latin America pulled into new world economy 3. Hierarchy of world economic relationships – Europe on top 4. New societies created – some incorporated, some destroyed a. Distinct civilization combining Iberian Peninsula w/ Native 5. Created large landed estates 6. Europeans came to Americas for economic gain and social mobility 7. Exploited precious metals II. Spaniards and Portuguese: From Reconquest to Conquest A. Introduction 1. Iberian Peninsula on the Eve of Exploration a. Tradition of military conquest and rule over other peoples b. Ferdinand and Isabella – unified and destroyed religious diversity a. Jews expelled b. Religious contributed to acceptance of Columbus’s idea B. Iberian Society and Tradition 1. Recreating Iberian life a. Urban cities surrounded by American Indians b. Conquerors as nobles with Indians as serfs c. Precedent of controlling African slaves 2. Political rule a. Professional bureaucracy b. Theocracy – religion and Church influenced politics – vice versa 3. Role of merchants a. Trading posts in Africa, but estates in Atlantic islands b. Trade factories turned into plantations - Brazil C. The Chronology of Conquest 1. Era of Conquest – 1492>1570 – administration and economy set-up 2. Consolidation and Maturity – 1570>1700 – colonial institutions 3. Reform and Reorganization – 1700>1800 – Reform and reorganization a. Seeds of dissatisfaction and revolt D. The Caribbean Crucible 1. Early island conquests – Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Cuba 2. Treatment of natives – Taino natives distributed to encomendero 3. City precedents – gridlike around central plaza – church, town hall, governor’s 4. Methods of rule – governors, treasury officials, notaries, Spanish laws brought 5. Early immigration a. Import African slaves
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b. Women came also – conquest goal turned to settlement c. Gold hunting phase initial then replaced by sugar plantations 6. Treatment of Natives – enslavement, disease, murder 7. Attempts at reform a. Clerics and priests tried to end abuses b. Bartolome d Las Casas – wrote of complaints E. The Paths of Conquest 1. Taking over Central Mexico – between 1519 and 1535 a. Not a movement, but series of individual initiatives b. Cortez defeats Aztecs in Tenochtitlan 2. Taking over South America a. Pizarro and Incas – Peru by 1540 3. Further exploration a. Densely populated areas first, then went after semisedentary/nomadic b. Coronado searches for gold goes into US c. 1570 192 Spanish cities and towns F. The Conquerors 1. Motivation a. 1/5 of all treasure to crown b. Money then divided among men signed up, priority to friends/relatives
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Chapter 19 - Early Latin America - Chapter 19 Early Latin...

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