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Chapter 21 - The Muslim Empires

Chapter 21 - The Muslim Empires - Chapter 21 The Muslim...

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Chapter 21 The Muslim Empires I. Introduction A. Muslim world essentially destroyed by those pesky Mongols B. But then…out of nowhere…came the return of the Muslims 1. Ottoman Empire – the biggest 2. Safavid Empire – Afghanistan and Iran 3. Mughal – the northern part of India C. These “gunpowder empires” could be compared with Russia and the West 1. In fact…they probably will be on a test not far, far away a. All militarily important b. Interacted far less with west than Russia c. Maintained control over how much they wanted to deal w/ West II. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders A. Introduction 1. Turkic-speaking peoples a. Some fleeing Mongols, some looking for booty b. Osman leads one of these peoples – the Ottomans 2. Ottomans attack Byzantine Empire a. Finally Mehmed II defeats Constantinople b. Big bad guns too much for big bad walls 3. Extending the Ottoman Empire a. Scary naval power in Mediterranean b. Spread empire down to Egypt and across N. Africa 1. Looks kind of like what the Roman Empire looked like, w/out Europe c. Threatened Vienna, but didn’t take d. But…Europe afraid of Ottomans for centuries…always in back of mind 1. Near the hypothalamus area B. A State Geared to Warfare 1. Economy and social class based on warfare a. Warrior class goes to top…surprise…guess who got to make the rules b. Competed for power with religious leaders and administrators 2. Army of Janissaries a. aka “Really Good Christian Slave Soldiers that Fight For Us” 1. Some given by parents, some taken forcibly 2. Schooled and could become bureaucrats 3. Hey…this is another type of coerced labor…interesting b. Became more powerful than cavalry – threatened aristocracy 1. What’s scarier…Mr. Ed the Horse or a canon and gun? C. The Sultans and Their Court 1. Sultans control those beneath and economy a. Manipulated factions – aristocracy, religious, administrators b. Commerce given to Christians/Jews – “people of the book” 2. Sultans grow distant from the masses a. This will surprise you, but…sultans got richer b. Spent all their days blowing money on wives, rituals and palaces c. Viziers ended up taking control – think Prime Minister 3. Problems with succession
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a. Like the rest of the Muslim world (similarity), succession confusing b. When you have a harem, you have many sons 1. You die…they fight each other 2. Losing sons sometimes fled to enemy nations to stage revolt D. Constantinople Restored and the Flowering of Ottoman Culture 1. Changing Constantinople a. After destroyed/sacked – rebuilt b. Hagia Sophia converted from cathedral to mosque c. Aqueducts built, markets reopened, city’s walls repaired 2. Future sultans try to improve mosques, infrastructure a. Architecture blends best of Muslim/Byzantine world a. Mansions, rest houses, schools, hospitals, gardens b. Fun and exciting markets c. Coffeehouses became centers of socialization, literary sharing and ingesting of caffeinated beverages 3. Regulation of merchants and artisans a. Government inspectors monitored quality of goods/artisans
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