Chapter 23 - The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914

Chapter 23 - The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914

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Chapter 23 The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914 I. Introduction A. Introduction 1. Major Themes a. Political Upheaval – age of revolution 1775-1848 b. Exportation of western European institutions to settler societies 2. Major Changes a. Monarchies replaced by parliaments (extensive voting) b. North America emerges as major force in world economics 3. Series of disruptions a. New cultural forms – some challenge/support Enlightened thought b. New states – Germany and United States c. Led to new alliances – which led to the Great War 4. Phases of Western transformation a. 1750-1775 – Period of growing crisis b. 1775-1850 – political revolution simultaneously with industrial revolution c. 1850-1914 – implications of industrial revolution B. Optimism in Chaos 1. Marquis de Condorcet – “Progress of the Human Mind” a. Due to literacy/education – mankind on the verge of perfection i. This humble man died in jail II. The Age of Revolution A. Forces of Change 1. Cultural change – change in intellectual thought – Enlightenment a. Political thought – challenged government i. Jean-Jacques Rousseau – government based on general will ii. Gap between leaders and thinkers – this isn’t a good precedent b. Also encouraged economic/social change 2. New businesspeople challenged old aristocracy a. New power structure vs. old economic values 3. Population revolution a. better border control – kept out those annoying immigrants with disease b. improved nutrition c. Effects i. upper class needed to control their position – feel threatened ii. can’t inherit property > join working class iii. rapid expansion of domestic manufacturing a. protoindustrialization – set foundation for future capitalism i. putting out system – capitalism out of your house 1. run by merchants – materials, work orders, sales iv. altered behaviors a. consumer mentality – keeping up with the Joneses b. premarital sex c. parents lose control – can’t threaten inheritance anymore d. defiance of authority B. The American Revolution 1. A Sortof Revolution – change of power from one group of elites to another i. Enlightened ideas used to justify switch, desire for political office ii. Atlantic coast colonies win 1. Why? - British blunders + French help 2. Set up new government – incorporated Enlightened ideas a. Montesquieu – checks and balances – divided branches b. Civil liberties – but…kept that thing called slavery
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c. Voting rights C. Crisis in France in 1789 1. This would set precedent that would transform all of Europe 2. Causes i. Ideological factors – Enlightenment pressure – limit Church/aristocracy ii. Social changes – merchant class wanted more power iii. Peasants pressed by population issues – want freedom from aristocracy iv. Catalyst – economic problems by French gov’t - series of wars/Versailles 3. Louis XVI – calls Estates General i. Supposed to be three estates – but turns into National Assembly
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This note was uploaded on 08/18/2011 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Troy during the Spring '11 term at Campbell University .

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Chapter 23 - The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914

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