Chapter 24 - Industrialization and Imperialism The Making of the European Global Order

Chapter 24 - Industrialization and Imperialism The Making of the European Global Order
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Chapter 24 Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order I. Introduction A. Change in Europe’s relationship with world 1. Change in goods – no longer spices/mfg goods, but natural resources for machines 2. Trade balance shifts a. Need for markets for Europe mfg products b. 1840 exported more than imported – finally, people want to buy Europe stuff 3. Reasons for expansion a. Missionaries no longer state sponsored i. Europe no longer threatened by anyone b. European rivalries now fueled expansion 4. Ability to control empire a. Industrialization gave Europe power to control center b. Steamships/railways put everyone in reach of European landgrab II. The Shift to Land Empires in Asia A. Introduction 1. Initially limited interest of Europeans to control regions – too expensive 2. Communication realities prevented centralized control – led to local administration B. Prototype: The Dutch Advance on Java 1. Initially Dutch paid tribute to Mataram sultans a. Dutch East India Co. worked w/in system 2. Later - backed Mataram sultans in intertribal conflicts a. Every time Dutch helped out, they demanded more land i. Dutch backing needed due to their organization, weapons, discipline ii. Finally in 1750s, they’d given up everything C. Pivot of World Empire: The Rise of the British Rule in India 1. Initially British East India Company worked with rulers 2. Later – backed territorial claims, princes used Europeans to settle disputes b. The usees then become the users 3. Unlike Dutch however, British Raj (gov’t) came from French/British rivalries a. 1700s – France/Britain in 5 wars, British won them all, but US 4. Key battle – 1757 Plassey a. 3000 British under Robert Clive defeat 50,000 Indians b. Victory not merely based on numbers issue i. Brits used Hindu banker money to pay off Indians ii. Method of getting back at Muslims c. Teenage nawab Siraj doesn’t have control of force i. they defect or refuse to fight D. The Consolidation of British Rule 1. Mughal Empire gradually breaks down under wars with East India Company a. As Brits took more land, Indian princes fought other lands to get territory i. India reduced India
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2. British control a. Madras, Bombay, Calcutta – administrative centers of three presidencies b. Local leaders of princely states had to report to British administrators 3. Reasons for British takeover a. Muslims/Hindus don’t unite under national identity b. Some Indians liked fighting for British – uniforms, weapons, pay, treatment i. 5 to 1 Indians serving British to actual British soldiers 4. India’s large population made it the key to great empire a. Indian soldiers used to conquer surrounding areas b. Became market for investments, manufactured goods c. Major source of raw materials E. Early Colonial Society in India and Java 1. Initially maintained existing social structure a. Just placed traders/officials above existing system 2. Tried to bring Europe over to Asia, but not always with success
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