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Chapter 25 - The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920

Chapter 25 - The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920...

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Chapter 25 The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920 I. Introduction A. Maximilian I – Austrian emperor – firing squad in 1867 1. Killed after years of Civil War 2. Proved need for Latin America to figure out future w/ out Europe B. Early 19 th century – Latin America created new nations 1. Problems…many divisions over how to address the following a. Role of religion b. Type of society c. nature of economy d. form of government 2. Plus…always threatened by a. Foreign governments b. new imperialist regimes c. neighbors seeking territory/economic advantage C. Is it a “developing nation” or part of European Enlightenment? 1. Enlightenment a. Shared virtues of progress, reform b. Representational government c. Constitutional government d. private property rights 2. Problems of colonial government a. No history of participatory government b. Dependence on invasive central authority c. Class/regional differences divided nation d. Huge wealth/income disparity e. European industrialization made Latin America a dependent nation II. From Colonies to Nations A. Introduction 1. Shared resentment of creoles and others (Natives/mestizos/mulattos) 1. new taxes and administrative reforms 2. Creoles – Enlightened ideas 2. But…still…class differences too much to overcome 1. Many attempts at independence failed – wealthy worried about losing power B. Causes of Political Change 1. Events encouraging change 1. American Revolution – 1776 2. French Revolution – 1789 a. But…regicide, rejection of Church, social leveling too much 3. Haitian Revolution – 1791 a. Toussaint L’Overture overthrows French colonial control 1. Makes local wealthy very hesitant to enlist the masses 4. Confused Iberian political situation a. Napoleon’s appointed brother vs. juntra central b. Independent juntas self-servingly set up own juntas C. Spanish American Independent Struggles 1. Mexico 1. Father Miguel de Hidalgo encourages Indians and mestizos - 1810 a. Later captured and executed after early victories – threat to elite
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2. 1820 – Augustin de Itubide – creole captures Mexico City w/ mestizo/Ind help a. Proclaimed emperor of Mexico b. Initially all of Central America attached, but by 1838 all had split off 2. South America/Caribbean – break away in reverse order of exploration 1. Argentina/Venezuela first and Caribbean last a. Fearful of slave resistance – bonjour Haiti b. 1820-1833 Gran Colombia – then broken to Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia 2. Creole Jose de San Martin fights for Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay independence a. Conservative creoles eventually supported after a ton of victories 3. By 1825 all Spanish South America had gained its independence D. Brazilian Independence 1. By end of 18 th century Brazil economically important a. European demand for sugar, cotton, cacao b. Creoles, upper class unwilling to risk change – lose to lower classes 2. Portuguese king and queen flee Portugal and head to Brazil a. After Napoleon’s invasion
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Chapter 25 - The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920...

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