Chapter 26 - Civilizations in Crisis The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China

Chapter 26 - Civilizations in Crisis The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China

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Chapter 26 Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China I. Introduction A. By mid-18 th century, looked like China was doing great 1. Controlled interaction with European “barbarians” – missionaries/traders to specified ports 2. Population, trade, agricultural production growing 3. Territory largest since 7 th century Tang B. By mid-18 th century, Ottoman looks like it’s falling apart 1. Austrian Hapsburgs/Russians chipping away at empire 2. African Muslim kingdoms broke away 3. Economic problems – rising inflation, European imports 4. Social problems – crime, rebellion 5. Military can’t keep back Europeans C. But by 19 th century, they’re both falling apart 1. China shows how vulnerable they are a. Impact of European industrialization huge b. Overpopulation, paralyzed government, massive rebellions – internal problems 2. Ottomans still hanging in there a. New leaders/new Western reforms D. By 20 th century 1. China imploding with ½ century of foreign invasions, revolution, social/economic collapse a. Suffering on scale unmatched in human history 2. In Ottoman Empire a. New leaders take over power from sultanate b. Turkish area becomes a nation c. But…Middle East now exposed to Europe *** II. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey A. Introduction 1. Problems due to series of weak rulers a. Power struggles between ministers, religious experts, Janissaries b. Local leaders + landowners (ayan) cheat sultan of money due to him c. Role of artisans/merchants declines with European impact 1. Merchants survived through European contacts 2. Can’t defend outer areas a. Limited money for military, inferior technology b. Russians push for warm-water port in Black Sea c. Throughout 1800s European holdings revolt 1. Greece, Serbia, Balkans B. Reform and Survival 1. But… “sick man of Europe” still survives – Europeans afraid to break up – power struggle a. British actually help Ottoman Empire to counter Russian advance 1. Concerned Russians might hurt British naval dominance 2. Question becomes – how to reform? a. Attempts at reform squashed by competing groups 1. Sultan Selim III pushes for improved bureaucracy, navy, army a. Janissary corps, powerful bureaucrats feel threatened – he dies 2. Mahmud II – 1826 gets rid of Janissaries a. Great soup kettle debacle of 1826
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b. Sultan’s secret military force slaughters Janissaries c. Limits powers of ayan d. What reforms to make? 1. Ulama – religious leaders = push for conservative theocracy 2. Mahmud chooses option B – Western reform a. Creates ambassadors to Europe b. Westernizes military 3. Next…Tansimat reforms a. Westernized university education b. State run postal, telegraph, railroad c. Legal reforms d. Effect of reforms 1. Killed artisans – no import taxes – people buy European 2. Women no effect – ignored cries for end to a. Seclusion, veiling, polygamy b. uneducatedness (not a word) – want education
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This note was uploaded on 08/18/2011 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Troy during the Spring '11 term at Campbell University .

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Chapter 26 - Civilizations in Crisis The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China

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