Chapter 27 - Russia and Japan Industrialization Outside the West

Chapter 27 - Russia and Japan Industrialization Outside the West

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Chapter 27 Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West I. Introduction A. Both Russia and Japan reacted differently to Western industrialization 1. Though behind the West, were able to remain economically autonomous 2. Unlike China/Middle East, not fully resistant to reform B. Japanese reforms not expected 1. Pulled away from the West with limited contacts 2. Japan pulled away from Asia 3. Russia continued to interact with eastern Europe/Central Asia C. Japanese/Russian similarities 1. Both had prior experience of imitation – Japan < China, Russia < Byzantium/West 2. Learning from outsiders profitable, doesn’t destroy culture 3. Both proved political effectiveness a. State would sponsor changes, not private corporations like in the West 4. Both expansionist – eventually run into each other a. Russo-Japanese War – Japan on right course, continue policy II. Russia’s Reforms and Industrial Advance A. Russia before Reform 1. Concerned with isolationism a. Invasion by Napoleon 1812 – concern with defense b. Enlightened ideals encourage insurrection c. Patriarchal comfort provided by feudalism i. Sponsor Holy Alliance at Congress of Vienna – defend religion/order 2. Elites sponsor inclusion of the arts a. But with Decembrist revolt in St. Petersburg 1825 i. Czar Nicholas I represses political opponents – defends conservatism 3. Unlike West – Russia’s heavy handed approach prevents revolts 4. More conservative and continues to expand in 19 th century a. Pushed into Poland and the Ottoman Empire i. Even though Ottoman Empire propped up by Britain and France a. Keep that “sick man of Europe” alive B. Economic and Social Problems: The Peasant Question 1. Expansion not matched by internal improvements a. Trade deficit lessened by increasing serf output, not improving industry b. Remained agricultural society based on serfdom 2. Crimean War 1854-1856 a. Russia fights Ottoman Empire to protect Christianity – how nice of them b. France/Britain aid Ottoman Empire eventually win c. Russia learns that 1. West has industrial advantage in weaponry and logistics 2. Alexander II – reform essential to survive militarily 3. Must deal with serfdom a. Need mobile labor force to encourage industrialization 1. So…Western humanitarian standards, but also…need for cheap, flexible labor b. But…initial reforms cause more problems than create solutions – open Pandora C. The Reform Era and Early Industrialization 1. Emancipation of serfs more liberal than slaves in Americas
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a. Serfs got bulk of land, slaves got zero b. But…preserved aristocratic power c. Serfs receive no new political rights – US 13 th , 14 th , 15 th amendments 2. Serfs tied to villages until they could pay for land
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Chapter 27 - Russia and Japan Industrialization Outside the West

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