Chapter 29 - The World in the 1920s Challenges to European Dominance

Chapter 29 - The World in the 1920s Challenges to European Dominance

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Chapter 29 The World in the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance I. Introduction A. Introduction 1. Responses to Crisis a. Revolutionary regimes b. Authoritarian Political Systems 2. Three major patterns a. Western Europe - economically/politically incomplete i. But culturally creative b. Growth of Japan and the United States c. Impact of 1920s Revolutions in China, Mexico and Russia B. Diplomatic Deafness 1. Methods of protest a. India - Gandhi - Hinduism tradition + criticized caste/gender b. Turkey - military force + diplomacy i. Deaf guy uses disability as negotiating technique II. The Disarray of Western Europe, 1918-1929 A. Introduction 1. War messed up European economy, diplomacy, governments a. Hapsburg and German empire end 2. Devestating material and psychological impact - lost generation a. Huge deb - not enough taxes - not a popular war idea B. The Roaring Twenties 1. Happy joy joy feelings in mid-1920s a. Germany wants to be friends b. Nations agree to never go to war again - Kellogg-Briand Pact 2. Clash of values a. Right wing - return to authoritarian regime i. Good ol' days of national honor b. Left wing splits - authoritarian or. .. i. Let's try that fun communism idea c. Ummm. ..what happened to the middle - why polarization 3. But. ..people getting wealthy and can buy more stuff - radios/cars/appliances 4. New art - film, geometric art (cubist), new play styles, books w/ funky plots a. Defiance of traditional styles - conflict conservatives vs. radicals 5. Science advances - people can't even understand it - too specialized 6. Women - critical gains a. Women suffrage in Britain, Germany, US b. More fashion/leisure freedom - prosperity + declining birth rate c. Sexual promiscuity on rise - some even dance - naughty i. Conservative backlash - women's place in the home 7. Industrialization - cult of efficiency - manager's organize/discipline masses C. Fascism in Italy 1, Benito Mussolini creates fascio di combattimeno (union for struggle) a. Nationalistic, strong leader, violent methods appropriate b. Don't want inefficient parliament or socialist class struggle - need leader c. Catalysts - anger over Italy's gains after WWI i. Plus. ..labor problems. ..have to control crabby workers 2. Italian King eventually asks Mussolini to help - best option
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a. Parliament inefficient, but communism was scary 3. Mussolini takes power - steps to victory a. Eliminate opposition - suspend elections b. State control of economy c. Glories of military conquest 4. Demonstrated that parliamentary rule not the best idea D. The New Nations of East Central Europe 1. Tougher to fix situation in Eastern Europe - more rural based 2. Fixated on nationalistic issues a. Waahh. ..I want more territory, I don't want to focus on domestic issues 3. Tried parliamentary structure, but ended with monarch or dictator a. Ahhhh. ..notice the cycle of revolution b. Supported by huge landlords who needed to put down peasant revolts
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This note was uploaded on 08/18/2011 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Troy during the Spring '11 term at Campbell University .

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Chapter 29 - The World in the 1920s Challenges to European Dominance

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