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Psy Review Exam 2 - C h 3-5 Sensation Perception Lea rn ing...

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Ch. 3-5 – Sensation & Perception / Learning / Memory Gather = sense (Sensation) Interpret = perceive (Perception) - How we perceive and sense information forms the foundation for our behavior and mental processing. - Perception does not replicate the world outside - Our view is constructed using assumptions/principles…which is built-in / developed from past perceptual experiences. - Brain controls perception of the world. German researchers (physiologists and physicists)(Weber and Fechner) - To understand sensation/perception – must know how the physical world / psychological world relate ( psychophysical research ) - Psychophysics - Used experimental methods to measure the relationship between the physical properties of stimuli & a person’s psychological perception of those stimuli (presenting faint signals of varying intensities) - 2 primary senses – vision / hearing Detection question - Examines limits on our sensory processing. - Ex. What’s the dimmest light we can see or the softest sound we can hear? - Psychophysicist varied the amount of energy in a sensory stimulus (the intensity of a light/sound) and asked ppl to say yes or no if they detected the stimulus. Absolute threshold – the minimum amount of energy in a sensory stimulus detected 50 percent of the time. Subliminal stimuli – stimuli detected less than 50% of the time (stimuli detected up to 49% of the time) Subliminal perception – perception without conscious awareness Extrasensory perception (ESP) – perception without using our known sense, i.e. mental telepathy Signal Detection theory - Cont. psychophysical researchers believe that the detection of faint signal involves decision making / sensory processing. Signal detection theory – is used to examine a person’s detection of very faint stimuli; assumes that the detection of faint sensor stimuli depends not only upon a person’s physiological sensitivity to a stimulus but also upon his decision criterion for detection, which is based on non-sensory factors (i.e. personality traits/expectations/alertness/motivation) - Signal detection researchers either present a signal of constant faint intensity or no signal and the observers decides whether a signal was presented or not. Four Outcomes: 1. Hit – detecting a signal when one is presented (correct) 2. Miss – failing to detect a signal when one was presented (error) 3. False alarm - saying a signal is present when it was not (error) 4. Correct rejection – correctly saying a signal was not presented when it was not (correct) - Lax decision criterion (tendency to say “yes” w/ little evidence) will make many false alarms, but have few misses because they’re saying yes all the time.
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- Strict criterion – many misses but few false alarms because they’re saying no most of the time.
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