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Psy Review Exam 1 - C h 1-2 The Science of Psychology...

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Ch. 1-2 – The Science of Psychology / Neuroscience Psychology - the science of behavior and mental processes - The American Psychological Association lists 54 diff divisions of psychology Psychoanalytical perspective - emphasizes the interaction of unconscious forces and childhood experiences in personality development Humanistic perspective - emphasizes the personal growth motive Four major research perspectives 1. Biological perspective (internal factor) – how our physiology (brain and nervous system) produces our behavior and mental processes and how genetics/evolution have impacted our physiology - Brain is the control center for almost all of our behavior and mental processing 2. Cognitive perspective (internal factor) - how our mental processes (perception, memory, and problem solving) work and how they impact our behavior 3. Behavioral perspective (external factor) - how external environmental events condition our observable behavioral 2 Major types of conditioning - 1. Classical (Pavlovian): explain how we learn fear and other emotional responses, taste aversions, etc. Ex. Ivan Pavlov’s dogs 2. Operant: relationship between our behavior and its environmental consequences - Reinforcing – if reinforced for a behavior most likely it will increase - Punished – if punished for a behavior most likely it will decrease 4. Sociocultural perspective (external factor) - how other people (social forces) and the cultural context impact our behavior and mental processes Bystander effect – the probability of a victim receiving help in an emergency is higher when there is one 1 bystander than when there are many. Hindsight bias (I-Knew-it-all-along phenomenon) –the tendency to be overconfident in one’s ability to have predicted something after have learned about an outcome. -Psychologists conclusions are based on scientific research , thus provide the best answers about human behavior and mental processing. - All psychology researchers use the same research methods Research Methods 1. Descriptive – used to provide objective and detailed descriptions of behavior and mental processes; can be used to develop hypotheses about casual relationships; cannot be used to make cause-effect statements. 3 Types 1. Observational - Laboratory observation – observes behavior in a laboratory setting
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- Naturalistic observation – a descriptive research method in which behavior is observed in its natural setting without the researcher intervening in the behavior being observed; can be used in the workplace, school, and social settings (bar). - Participant observation – the observer becomes part of the group being observed, this reduces the chances of the results becoming contaminated by their presence. 2. Case Studies – the researcher studies an individual in depth over an extended period of time ; main goal of a case study is to gather info that will help treat the patient; results of a case study cannot be generalized to the entire population Hippocampus
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