Psy Review Exam 3 - Ch. 6, 7, 9 Thinking the processing of...

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Ch. 6, 7, 9 Thinking – the processing of information to solve problems and make judgments and decisions Well-defined problem – a problem with clear specifications of the start state, goal state, and the processes for reaching the goal state (monopoly; scrabble) Ill-defined problem – a problem lacking clear specification of either the start state, goal state, or the processes for reaching the goal state. - Problem solving - (1) Interpreting the problem (2) Trying to solve the problem Fixation (interpreting the problem) – the inability to create a new interpretation of a problem Functional fixedness (interpreting the problem) – the inability to see that an object can have a function other than its typical one in solving a problem (can’t seem to use a trash bag to protect you from rain) Mental set (solving the problem)- the tendency to use previously successful problem-solving strategies without considering others that are more appropriate for the current problem (common for strategies used recently) - Negative impact of past experiences - misinterpretation, functional fixedness, mental set Insight (solving problems)– a new way to interpret a problem that immediately yields the solution (Aha! & Eureka!) Algorithm – a step-by-step problem-solving procedure that guarantees a correct answer to a problem (time consuming) Heuristic – a problem-solving strategy that seems reasonable given past experience with solving problems, especially similar problems, but does not guarantee a correct answer to a problem (educated guess; known to give you a quicker answer) Problem solving heuristics Anchoring and adjustment heuristic – a heuristic for estimation problems in which one uses his or her initial estimate as an anchor estimate and then adjusts the anchor up or down (often insufficiently)(often used when meeting ppl) Working backward heuristic – a problem-solving heuristic in which one attempts to solve a problem by working from the goal state back to the start state (often used in math problems) Means-end analysis heuristic – a problem-solving heuristic in which the distance to the goal state is decreased systematically by breaking the problem down into subgoals and achieving these subgoals _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Judging probability Representativeness heuristic – a heuristic for judging the probability of membership in a category by how well an object resembles (is representative of) that category (the more representative, the more probable) Conjunction fallacy – incorrectly judging the overlap of two uncertain events to be more probable than either of the two events Gambler’s fallacy – incorrectly believing that a chance process is self-correcting in that an event that has not occurred for a while is more likely to occur Availability heuristic – a heuristic for judging the probability of an event by how available examples of the
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This note was uploaded on 08/19/2011 for the course PSY 2012 taught by Professor Dobson during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Psy Review Exam 3 - Ch. 6, 7, 9 Thinking the processing of...

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