5. Variation-1 - Variation Language family trees Refers to...

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Unformatted text preview: Variation Language family trees Refers to genetic relationships that diverge over time and across space. Problem Reasons for the development of regional and linguistic differences are more complex. There is much less variation in vast Australia than in small Britain. Social reasons for variation Strong sense of togetherness in certain speech communities and search for a marked identity Possibility and frequency of contacts with other groups of people Social mobility Linguistic accommodation urbanization Language vs. dialect A language is a dialect with an army and a navy. Dialects are said to be mutually intelligible (although this is not always the case). Dialects are characteristically spoken Dialects are said to be used in certain domains E.g., school, family, work, Church, Media Local/national administration dialect vs. accent Accent refers to the pronunciation of a variety Dialect refers to its grammar and vocabulary Levels of variation Spelling Phonetics/phonology Morphology Syntax Lexicon (vocabulary) Pragmatics Spelling Varieties of (World) Standard English are generally characterized by great similarity at the level of spelling. However, there are regular British vs American differences: Travelled vs. traveled Centre vs. center Colour vs color Lexical incidentals (unpredictable variation) Grey vs. gray Tyre vs. tire More on spelling Pidgins & Creoles Written representations of pidgins and creoles are characterized by a wish for closer relationship between spelling and pronunciation than in standard orthographies. Cameroon Pidgin English come out is kmt water is wt God Nyus fo ol Pipul [Good News for All People]-Bible translated by Cameroon Bible Society Problems with spelling in Cameroon Pidgin English (CPE) Though words written phonetically have the advantage of being exact, they pose two difficulties: many people are not used to them, and many of the words have several phonological realizations depending on the speakers origin...
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This note was uploaded on 08/19/2011 for the course SSA 4930 taught by Professor Essegbey during the Spring '11 term at University of Florida.

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5. Variation-1 - Variation Language family trees Refers to...

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