9. West Africa Pidgin English

9. West Africa Pidgin English - West Africa Pidgin English...

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Unformatted text preview: West Africa Pidgin English Proto-W.A.P.E. • Proto-W.A.P.E was only spoken around the trading posts and by a small minority of Africans. • The variety used during the early stages is better described as a jargon, predominantly used for black- white communication. • It must have started to stabilize (i.e. develop a more complex structure and vocabulary) around 1800 • Tertiary hybridization (i.e. use among Africans of different ethnic groups) started around the second half of the 19 th century. The classification of features found in WAPE and Krio class Feature “originated” in attestation 1 Krio pre-1850 Krio, but post-1850 or unattested in WAPE post-1850, but not in WAPE post-1850 Krio, but earlier than WAPE 2 WAPE and Krio Pre-1850 WAPE and pre-1850 Krio 3 WAPE pre-1850 WAPE, but post-1850 or unattested in Krio post-1850, but not in Krio post-1850 WAPE, but earlier than Krio Example of class 1 items • Na (copular) • John na profesor ‘John is a professor’ • Una ‘you all’ (found in Krio 1882, Gullah 1868) • Una sabi am ‘You all know him’ • Pikin ‘child’ (found in Krio 1841, Jamaican 1903) • Nyam (nyam) ‘eat food’ (found in Krio 1834, Gullah 1908, Jamaican 1776) • Di pikin de nyam ‘The child is eating’ Examples of class 2 items • Go (Future) • A go go ‘I will go’ • Dem (Determiner, demonstrative, plural marker) • Dem word hurt me ‘those words/the word hurt me’ • Pass (comparative) • I fain pass me own ‘It is nicer than mine’ Examples of class 3 items • Say ‘that (COMPLEMENTIZER)’ • A see say i come ‘I see that he has come’ • Postposed dem (Plural) • Boy dem ‘boys’ Summary- number of features attested in...
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9. West Africa Pidgin English - West Africa Pidgin English...

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