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13. The context of creole formation in Suriname

13. The context of creole formation in Suriname - The...

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The context of creole formation in Suriname
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Introduction The early history of Suriname can be subdivided into three distinct contact settings that differed with respect to their social and linguistic characteristics and the processes and mechanisms of contact they conditioned. Contact setting I (1652-1679): the period of the use of varieties of English Contact setting II (1680-1695): the period of the emergence of the creole Contact setting III (1695-1720): the period of the stabilization of the creole
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Contact setting I The colony of Suriname was founded in 1651 as a British colony It came under Dutch control in 1667 (as the result of the second Anglo-Dutch war)
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Years Europeans Africans Total Ratio 1652 200 200 400 1:1 1661 1000 2000 3000 1:2 1665 1500 3000 4500 1:2 1668 1070 1850 2950 1:2 1671 800 2500 3300 1:3 1675 550 1800 2350 1:3 1679 460 1000 1460 1:2
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Europeans: Before 1665: mainly English After 1665: speakers of Portuguese and Spanish Early 1670s: different European languages, Dutch, Swedish, German, and French replaced English speakers Africans Gbe Kikongo Akan
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Ratio of Africans imported per decade to African population Decades Number of Africans at the beginning of decade Number of Africans imported per decade Ratio of existing population to imports Attrition rate among the African population 1651-1659 __ 200 n.a n.a 1660-1669 2000 2800 1:1.4 0.58 1670-1679 2000 3500 1:1.8 72%
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Characteristics of contact setting I The setting was dominated by the small farming unit that was either worked single-handedly by the owner and his family or by the
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