Lecture 5 - Phylogeny I0 - c metamorphic often not useful...

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Lecture 5 Outline – Phylogeny and Systematics I I. The scale of evolution A. Microevolution – evolution within a population or species; generational timescale B. Macroevolution – evolution across species; geological timescale 1. Systematics – study of biological diversity and its origins / history via phylogenetics II. What are phylogentic trees? A. Phylogeny –pattern of lineage branching that represents evolutionary history B. Terminology 1. root 2. branch 3. node 4. terminal node 5. common ancestor 6. extant species III. What are phylogenies based on? A. Synapomorphy – shared derived character 1. Fossil record a. Dating the fossil record i. Radiometric analysis of surrounding rocks a. igneous – provides absolute age b. sedimentary – provides relative age
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Unformatted text preview: c. metamorphic - often not useful ii. Index fossils (correlation analysis) a. e.g Ammonite fossil iii. Magnetism 2. morphology-3. molecular / genetic data - 4. behavior - 5. Ecological IV. Homologous (synapomorphies) versus analogous (homoplasy) 1. Convergent evolution – phenomenon where two (or more) distinct species independently evolve similar (analogous) traits. 2. Convergent evolution results from similar environmental challenges V. Classification and phylogeny A. Linnaean Hierarchal classification a. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species b. Binomial – official species name i. Genus capitalized, species lower case ii. Italicized or underlined B. Classification should reflect evolution (but not always)...
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