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04-2010C-10 - Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life...

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Unformatted text preview: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Page 1: Carbon Chemistry s Organic Chemistry is the chemistry of compounds that contain carbon that s Carbon has 6 electrons; 2 in the first orbital level Carbon and 4 in the second and s What is the valence of Carbon? How many What electrons does it need to be stable? electrons Will it form Ionic or Covalent bonds? Will s Chapter4 Page 3: Functional Groups s Functional groups are regions of organic molecules most commonly involved in chemical reactions chemical s Six are so frequently used that you will Six need to memorize them. Please know Figure 4.10 on Page 64-65 of your text. Chapter 4 Page 4: Functional Groups s The functional Groups are: s Hydroxyl = OH Carbonyl = CO Carboxyl = COOH Amino = NH2 Sulfhydryl = SH Phosphate = PO4 Phosphate Methyl = CH3 Methyl s s s s s s Chapter 4 Page 5 : Variations in Carbon Skeletons s Carbon can be bonded in a variety of structural forms s Isomers have the same molecular formula but have Isomers different structural arrangements different s There are 3 types of isomers Structural = variations in arrangement Geometric = variations around a double bond Enantiomers = variations around an asymmetric Enantiomers carbon ;easiest to recall as non-superimposable mirror images images s s s Additional Examples of Enantiomers s In Ibuprofen: S form is active in pain relief s In Albuterol: R form is the biologically active form for relief of asthma symptoms s Be sure to read about Thalidomide in you text What is the valence of oxygen? A. B. 2 6 COOH and HOOC are enantiomers A. B. C. true false Cannot determine ...
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