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Unformatted text preview: Carbon and the Molecular
Diversity of Life
Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Page 1: Carbon
s Organic Chemistry is the chemistry of compounds
that contain carbon
that s Carbon has 6 electrons; 2 in the first orbital level
and 4 in the second
and s What is the valence of Carbon? How many
electrons does it need to be stable?
Will it form Ionic or Covalent bonds?
Will s Chapter4 Page 3: Functional Groups
s Functional groups are regions of organic
molecules most commonly involved in
chemical s Six are so frequently used that you will
need to memorize them. Please know
Figure 4.10 on Page 64-65 of your text. Chapter 4 Page 4: Functional
s The functional Groups are: s Hydroxyl = OH
Carbonyl = CO
Carboxyl = COOH
Amino = NH2
Sulfhydryl = SH
Phosphate = PO4
Methyl = CH3
s Chapter 4 Page 5 : Variations in
s Carbon can be bonded in a variety of structural forms s Isomers have the same molecular formula but have
different structural arrangements
different s There are 3 types of isomers
Structural = variations in arrangement
Geometric = variations around a double bond
Enantiomers = variations around an asymmetric
carbon ;easiest to recall as non-superimposable mirror
s Additional Examples of Enantiomers
s In Ibuprofen: S form is active in pain relief s In Albuterol: R form is the biologically
active form for relief of asthma symptoms s Be sure to read about Thalidomide in you
text What is the valence of oxygen?
6 COOH and HOOC are enantiomers
Cannot determine ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/19/2011 for the course BSC 2010 taught by Professor Thomas during the Fall '07 term at University of Central Florida.
- Fall '07