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05-2010-10 - The Structure and Function of Macromolecules...

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Unformatted text preview: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Page 1: Macromolecules s Macromolecules are large molecules s Polymers are large molecules consisting of many repeating subunits of monomers repeating s Monomers : repeating subunits used to build substances Hydrolysis s Hydrolysis = s To disassemble a polymer the water is To added and the molecule separates. added Condensation Synthesis s Condensation Synthesis = Condensation subunits are joined together by condensation synthesis; a molecule of water is removed to join them removed Chapter 5 Page 2 : Carbohydrates s Carbohydrates are sugars; many are polymers s Monosaccharides have the molecular formula C1 H2 O1 or some multiple thereof Ex C6 H12 O6 some 12 s Disaccharides consist of two monomers joined by a Disaccharides glycosidic linkage glycosidic s Storage Polysaccharides ; Starch in plants, glycogen in Storage animals- more structurally branched animals- s Structural Polysaccharides: Cellulose- major plant cell Structural wall component wall Chapter5 Page 3: Lipids s Lipids are more commonly known as fats s Lipids are non-polar molecules; they are not water Lipids soluble s They are hydrophobic s Lipids are important for energy storage Lipids s Fatty acids, Phospholipids, Steroids Fatty Chapter 5 Page 5 : Proteins s s Proteins account for more than 50% of cell dry wt Protein Functions Protein x Structural x Contractile x Storage x Defense x Transport x Signaling x Catalysts Chapter 5 Page 6: Proteins s Amino Acids are the building blocks of protein There are 20 amino acids, 9 are essential = must There eat them we cannot synthesize eat s Polypeptides are many amino acids joined together s s The function of a protein depends on its chemical The structure and unique 3-D shape Chapter 5 Page 8: Levels of Protein Structure s Primary Structure: Unique sequence of amino acids: Primary sequence is determined by genetic material sequence s Secondary Structure: coiling /folding as a result of Secondary hydrogen bonding hydrogen s Tertiary Structure: 3-D shape due to bonding of R- groups s Quaternary Structure: association of 2 or more Quaternary polypeptides; Ex HGB ; not all have this level Chaperons/Chaperonins s What level of structure was being formed in What the previous picture? s What predominantly holds this level What together? together? The “Blue Gene” Computer s IBM has a project s They hope to be able to take any amino acid They sequence and produce a computer generation of the folded protein the s Currently there are no computers powerful Currently enough to do this Chapter 5 Page : Denaturation s Denaturation means the protein structure is Denaturation destroyed destroyed s Causes of denaturation include: Causes x heat x pH x chemicals x Salt concentrations Salt Chapter 5 Page : Enzymes s Enzymes are proteins used to speed up chemical Enzymes reactions = Catalysts reactions s They are not consumed or converted in the They reactions reactions s In Ch 8 we will go into more detail Chaapter5 Page : Nucleic Acids s Nucleic Acids carry information Function is to store and transmit heritable information s DNA = carries all codes for life; double stranded s RNA = protein synthesis s Nucleotides/Nucleic Acids are composed of: x Nitrogenous Base:ATGC x Pentose = 5 Carbon sugar x Phosphate group x In DNA A pairs with T ; G with C s Nucleic Acids are the building blocks of protein A. B. True False What macromolecule could be made from H, C, NH2,COOH, R A. B. C. D. lipid nucleic acid carbohydrate Amino acid ...
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